Espionage Act of 1917

Espionage was rampant in the early 1900’s. Citizens made significant sacrifices “to make the world safe for democracy(2). ” Americans were also alert to the presence of spies who could sabotage the war effort. Congress passed the Espionage Act on June 15, 1917. The law provided stiff penalties for those found guilty of aiding the … Read more

American Civil War

During the American Civil War, which lasted from 1861-1865, over 620,000 accounted soldiers were killed. Known as the “the first modern war”, historians generally agree that the reason for this was because this was a time of transition for the military. Armies and Navies were still using tactics where they would gather large forces of … Read more

Catherine II, Empress of Russia

One of the most interesting, hard-working and powerful people to grace the pages of history during the eighteenth century was Catherine II, Empress of Russia. Historians have not always been so kind to her memory, and all too often one reads accounts of her private life, ignoring her many achievements. The stories of her love … Read more

Catherine The Great

Throughout history, Russia has been viewed as a regressive cluster of barely civilized people on the verge of barbarism. In the eighteenth century, ideas of science and secularism grasped hold of Europe, and Russian Czars, realizing how behind Muscovite culture was, sought out this knowledge, attempting to imbed it into Russian society. Catherine II was … Read more

Pearl Harbor

On 7 December 1941 the greatest disaster in United States history occurred. Truly this was and is, “’A date which will live in infamy. ’”(Costello 1), but not for the bombing of Pearl Harbor, rather for the deception and the mis-guidance used by the Government and Franklin D. Roosevelt. In a purely artificial chess game … Read more

Alien and Sedition Act

You are back in the year 1798, the government has just passed a law saying what ever they do and create it will be the standard. You have no say or any comment on it, because frankly they just dont care. You are now placed back in the year 2001, would it be possible to … Read more

The period of Reconstruction

The Civil War was the bloodiest war to be fought on American soil. Although both sides expected the conflict to be over in a matter of days, it lasted four tumultuous years, from 1861-1865. The war pitted brother against brother, neighbor against neighbor. The period of Reconstruction, the time when our nation attempted to mend … Read more

The 1930s: The Good Times and The Bad Times

The decade of the 1930s can be characterized in two parts: The Great Depression, and the restoration of the American economy. America had been completely destroyed due to the Stock Market Crash of 1929. It was up to the government and people of the 1930s to “mend” Americas wounds. One man stood up to this … Read more

Midway Essay

Nothing distinguished the dawn of June 2, 1942, from countless other dawns that had fallen over tiny Midway atoll in the North Pacific. Nothing, that is, except the tension, the electric tension of men waiting for an enemy to make his move. On Midway’s two main islands, Sand and Eastern, 3,632 United States Navy and … Read more

Ferdinand Magellan

In the early 1500s, almost four and a half centuries before men first orbited the earth; an expedition completed and led by Ferdinand Magellan performed a task of comparable significance for that time period. Magellan, a Portuguese navigator for Spain, sailed westward with a fleet of five ships from the port of Sanlucar de Barrameda … Read more

The Monroe Doctrine

The Monroe Doctrine can be considered as the United States first major declaration to the world as a fairly new nation. The Monroe Doctrine was a statement of United States policy on the activity and rights of powers in the Western Hemisphere during the early to mid 1800s. The doctrine established the United States position … Read more

History of Turkish Occupation of Northern Kurdistan

Since 1984, and especially the last few months, the domestic problems of a major N. A. T. O, Middle Eastern, and American ally state have come to the forefront of the international news scene. That state is the Republic of Turkey and it’s primary troubles stem from the past seven decades of acrimonious policies directed … Read more

The Indian Frontier

The Indian Frontier of the American West tells a story of the different Indian tribes and whites from 1846 to 1890. This period of time is very famous in American history. It produced some of the most widely heard of names in the battles between Indians and whites. These names include Chief Joseph of the … Read more

Reformation

The 14th, 15th and part of 16th century was a glorious time for Europe, it was the reformation of many old ideas and the formation of many new, this was called the Renaissance. The Renaissance brought many changes to Europe, the economy was greatly boosted by of all the new explorations. The flourishing economy helped … Read more

Elizabethan England

In Elizabethan England (1558-1606), plays and the theater were the most common forms of entertainment. A traveling acting company traveled to towns and set up a stage wherever they couldusually an inn. The traveling actors were usually despised, and treated like vagabonds. James Burbage decided to build a permanent place where these actors could perform. … Read more

German Democratic Republic and Federal Republic of Germany

On October 3, 1990, the states of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) shed their last ties to their Soviet created structure and joined the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). The 23rd article of West Germany’s 1949 constitution, the Basic Law, had been drafted specifically to allow for such an arrival from the East. … Read more

Is There a Light at The End of The Tunnel?

People believe that the year 2000 brings worldwide devastation. They are preparing themselves for Y2K, apocalypse, and the second coming of Christ. People are taken in on a huge hype that the year 2000 will be the end of the world for everyone. Some people believe that the pending year 2000 bug will wreak havoc … Read more

The War of 1812

To many, the War of 1812 is considered the second war for independence. To me, it is the one of the most unusual wars of all time. During a time period between 1803-1812 British sailors had been tormenting American ships on the high seas. British captains would eventually take over and capture over 10,000 American … Read more

Hitler Report Essay

In the fall of 1922, the Germans asked the Allies for a moratorium on the reparations payments that they were required to pay according to the Versailles Treaty (from World War I). The French government refused the request and occupied the Ruhr, the integral industrial area of Germany, when the Germans defaulted on their payments. … Read more

Rail Termini of London

The early19th century was a period of prosperity for the city of London. Beginning with the acceleration of growth in the 18th century, London found itself to be the largest city in the world by the early 19th century. To accommodate this increase in population and crowding, alternative methods of transportation were in demand. As … Read more

Cleopatra Vll

Cleopatra Vll was born in 69 BC, in Alexandria, Egypt. Despite what people say today, that she was glamorous and beautiful, she was far from it. She is shown on ancient coins with a long hooked nose and masculine features. Although she was not beautiful she was clearly a very seductive woman, and she used … Read more

Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell was an English soldier and statesman who led parliamentary forces in the English Civil Wars. He was lord protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1653 to 1658 during the republican Commonwealth. As a general on the parliamentary side of the English Civil War vs. Charles I, Cromwell helped bring about the overthrow … Read more

The English type of Government

When the thirteen British colonies in North America declared their independence in 1776, they laid down that governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. In so doing they were consciously echoing the words of the Great Charter which King John had sealed 561 years before, wherein he … Read more

Explaining the Twenties

In 1920, for the first time, the United States census revealed that more Americans lived in cities than in rural areas. This fact speaks to a dramatic cultural shift that had taken place. The older ethnically homogenous white Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP) culture, characterized by their traditional religion and farm life fell into decline. Overtaking its … Read more

All Quiet on the Western Front

The chapter begins with German soldiers at rest after fourteen days of fierce battle on the Western Front. A double ration of food has been prepared so the soldiers are eating their fill. Paul Baumer, the protagonist and narrator of the novel, watches in amazement as his friends, Tjaden and Muller, eat another helping; he … Read more

Bastille Day, on the Fourteenth of July

“Bastille Day, on the Fourteenth of July, is the French symbol of the end of the Monarchy and the beginning of the French Revolution” (www. hightowertrail. com). It is very much like Independence Day in the United States because it is a celebration of the beginning of a new form of government. There are several … Read more

The Civil War had begun

“The tragic fireball in the night imagined by Jefferson had finally rung. The Missouri Compromise had failed. Proslavery and antislavery civilians clashed in the streets and took up arms. Thousands of Northerners were willing to die for their beliefs. The Civil War had begun. The states were at war with each other. ” This dividing … Read more

Vimy Ridge

It was at Vimy, in 1917, that all four Divisions of the Canadian Corps attacked simultaneously for the first time, about 100,000 men taking part in the battle. Vimy Ridge was an important part of the Germans’ defenses, barring the way to the mines and factories in the Douai plain, which had been of great … Read more