1. What are the subjects of the early cave paintings and for what reason, the archeologists believe they were painted? Use examples from your assigned readings. The subjects were animals. The meaning behind the painting of caves was thought to be because humans have a built in desire to decorate their surroundings. Scientist also believed that’s cave paintings were to help clan bonds, rites, even had ceremonies around the paintings because they thought it would increase fertility in animals which would allow them to have more animals to feast on.
Example: Chauvet, depicted horses and bears, panthers and mammoths and other animals. Included humans and handprints, grids and dots. Other examples included Pech-Merle, Altamira, and Lascaux. 2. What is a “memory image,” and what was its significance? Use examples. Memory images are generalized elements that reside in our standard memory of a human head. Its significance would be it helps in signifying what we see without eyes and what we can put into art form. An example would be Woman from Brassempouy.
In this carving the artist captured the fundamental nature of a head. This piece of work is known as an abstract art form. Although the shapes and appearance of the carving is very much recognizable to what a real human head would look like. 3. What are the differences between the art of Paleolithic and Neolithic periods? Use examples from your assigned readings. Paleolithic art comprised of cave paintings, sculptures, and carvings, figurines, small artifacts, figurative art and nonfigurative art.
Most art was made of different types of stone. Such as the bird heads, Man with Bison, Hall of Bulls, Woman from Brassempouy, and Lion-Human. As for Neolithic periods, art in this time comprised of architecture, sculpture and pottery and ceramic type art. Some examples of the art in this era included the Skara Brae, Stonehenge, vessels, and Horse and sun chariot and schematic drawing of incised design 4. What was the purpose of architecture in the Neolithic period, and what was its significance? Use examples from the assigned readings.
The purpose of architecture in this period was used for storage space, dwellings and villages, and shelter for animals. Built tombs and ritual centers. The significance was to have places to harvest, places where animals could be kept, also for protection. Example: Skara Brae built of stone protected people from storms. Stonehenge, circle of stones surrounded by a ditch and embankments. Used for ceremonies. 5. What are some of the methods of architecture in the Neolithic period in Europe? What does it tell us about the people who lived in this period?
The techniques used to make architecture for dwellings and villages would be using a ridgepole a long horizontal beam against the slanting roof poles were braced. Also used wattle or daub, which was woven branches in a pattern form, which was covered with mud or clay. Thatch was also used which was a plant material that tied over framework. Corbeling is where layers of flat stones formed walls, with each layer projecting inward over the one below. They had understanding of basic math and geometry because they understood architecture and how things fit together.
Other methods included Dolmen, cairn, and megalithic architecture. 6. What does “naturalism” in the art of the prehistoric period mean? Use examples from the assigned readings. Naturalism, like realism is the interpretation that seeks to record the visible world, some would agree that this type of interpretation is the highest accomplishment in art. Although not everyone agrees. Examples: Corinthian Capital from the Tholos at Epidaurus 7. What is the significance of the “Pottery” in studying art history? The significance is to show the development art was becoming.
This was a huge conceptual leap in art history because this time of art demonstrated a high degree of skill and “aesthetic imagination. ” To even begin making ceramics they had to mix different substances together, it showed how the cultures knowledge about objects and materials was expanding. 8. What are the characteristics of the Bronze Age? Characteristics include bronze, an alloy, a mix of tin and copper. A hard substance used for many different things. Weapons were made with Bronze, sculptures were made with bronze, wagons and wheeled chariots.
Because bronze is such a strong substance it could be used for almost anything. 9. What is the significance of the symbolic motifs in the art of the Bronze Age? The significance was to show the exploitation of horse’s strength, also other art work showed signs that there might have been a widespread sun cult. The art work showed very much detail, like the horses eyes were represented as tiny suns, ultimately showing an understanding of what the sun brought and how it moved. Also showed that they were ultimately learning and growing as a culture with the understanding about the world