The current conceptual framework outlines and links cultural and psychological acculturation and identifies contextual factors and ethnic relations. According to Barry (2005), parents have higher scores on a measure of family obligations than their young children. The research supported that parents and children have different views about parent-adolescent relationships during acculturation. Parents were perceived to have higher scores on a measure of family obligations than their young children in contrast to immigrant youth that have higher scores on a the adolescent scale.
Immigrant Children In previous findings, adolescences are a conceptualization of a stage involving object loss and a transformation of re-editing an identity (Blos, 1966). A cultural process in context invokes a fluid and ever changing characteristic of an individual’s culture that responds to changes in the traditional and cultural contexts (Rothe, 2011). A cultural identity ascribed a sense of solidarity ideas, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of members of a particular cultural group (Rothe, 2011).
Parental involvement is crucial to the establishment of a cultural identity. Parents provide teaching, leadership, a firm guidance and love to ease the transition to a new culture. According to Rothe (2011), first generation immigrant children often start behind their American-born counterparts, but catch-up quickly and have high rates of learning growth. The purpose of the current study was to review the most recent research findings of the first and second generation of the young immigrants in the United States.
The purpose was also to explain the psychodynamic processes of migration and acculturation including risk factors and protective factors that affect adolescents migrating to the United States (Rothe, 2011). The reason this topic is urgent is because the foreign-born population in the United States has rapidly increased by 57% in the last decade, compared to only a 9. 3% growth of the U. S. native population (Rothe, 2011). Some adolescents have to bare the separations from parents due to families migrating in a stepwise fashion and securing employment thus, sending back monetary remittances.
This process constitutes a painful reality for many children and young immigrants today that can affect them psychologically. In the present study, qualitative measures were utilized to analyze results of Second-generation children that have been found to be at a higher risk of substance abuse, conduct disturbance, and eating disorders, than the first generation of immigrant youth (Rothe, 2011). This conceptual model measures acculturation as a complex construct that presents a challenge to investigators due to it encompasses socioeconomic, historical, political and psychodynamic variables (Rothe, 2011).
The dependent variable is the adolescent’s acculturation, and the independent variables are the different factors, which are substance abuse, conduct disturbance, and eating disorders (Rothe, 2011). This empirical investigation consisted of 5,262 adolescents of 77 nationalities in two critical areas of immigrant settlement in the United States: San Diego, California and Miami-Fort Lauderdale area of Southern Florida (Rothe, 2011).
Another finding of this study compared to second and third generation youth, first-generation youth outperforms them in standardized tests and exhibit lower rates of juvenile delinquency (Rothe, 2011). The research further supports that there are major differences between different groups of young immigrants. The current study used a cultural competence model recommended by Cross et al. , (1989) who defined cultural competence as the ability to serve people across cultural differences.
The model is a treatment approach were the researcher identified leading provider and system characteristic such as acceptance of difference, self-awareness of therapist cultural values, understanding dynamics of difference, development of cultural knowledge, and adapting practices to the cultural context of the patient (Rothe, 2011). Overall, treatment should aim at therapy that facilitates the successful completion of the growing process since young immigrants are a generation oriented not to their parent’s immigrant pasts, but to their American futures. Identity Development
A recent study reviewed previously used models such as identity development and provided a theoretical framework for understanding adolescents. Schwartz (2013) purposed a review on identity status based theory and research with adolescents and emerging adults. The research question in the present study asks when are the first successive approximations of selfexamination for adolescents and young adults resolved? The current empirical, conceptual framework is proposed to review the identity status-based theory and previous research with adolescents and emerging adults.
Schwartz (2013) asked the simplest question what is identity from a developmental perspective and how does it function? One of the models he used to explain identity development was Erikson’s (1950) lifespan psychosocial theory, of which identity was a central theme and posited identity as a dynamic interplay between identity synthesis and identity confusion. Identity synthesis describes a coherent and internally consistent sense of self over time and across circumstances (Dunkel, 2005).
The identity confusion depicts a fragmented or piecemeal sense of self that does not support self-directed decision-making (Dunkel, 2005). Another model reviewed in this research was the identity status model also purposed by Erikson. The identity status model was aimed to understand the exploration and commitment to be the defining dimensions of identity. The term exploration refers to sorting through various potential identity alternatives. The term commitment represents selecting one or more options to which to adhere.
Marcia (2001) divided exploration and commitment into “present” and “absent” levels and he crossed the exploration and engagement dimensions to create four identity status categories (Kroger & Marcia, 2011). The four categories were an achievement, moratorium, foreclosure, and diffusion (Kroger & Marcia, 2011). The term achievement represents a set of commitments enacted following a period of exploration (Schwartz, 2013). The term moratorium represents a state of active investigation with few commitments (Schwartz, 2013).
The term foreclosure in this context represents a set of responsibilities enacted without prior investigation (Schwartz, 2013). The term diffusion represents an absence of commitments coupled with a lack of interest in exploration (Schwartz, 2013). Another model reviewed in this study was the certaintyuncertainty model, which was introduced by Crocetti, Meeus (Crocetti, Rubini, & Meeus, 2008; Klimstra, Hale, Raaijmakers, Branje, & Meeus, 2010).
This model is part of three processes, which are a commitment, exploration in depth, and reconsideration of engagement (Schwartz, 2013). The term Commitment refers to a combination of the commitment making and identification with commitment dimensions (Schwartz, 2013). The term reconsideration of commitment refers to a willingness to entertain the prospect of replacing one’s current responsibilities with new ones (Schwartz, 2013). The term reconsideration is similar to exploration in breadth, but it proceeds from a somewhat different set of assumptions (Schwartz, 2013).
According to Schwartz (2013), these models were criticized due to minimum attention to context and the identity development process as a set of individual choices. Although, there is much criticism the identity status model implies much controversy since it has remained useful for an extended period. The model has inspired some other models that have furthered the understanding of what identity is and the functions. Schwartz (2013) further explains other models that have been used to describe and explain the process of identity development from late adolescence through emerging adulthood.
According to Schwartz (2013), a review of recent models suggests the feasibility that a coherent and well-organized sense of identity may expedite illness-related coping and may protect against distress associated with chronic diseases. Narrative identity research also supports the conclusion that internalizing symptoms correlate to the displeasure of one’s immediate sense of self and the lack of knowledge of the rootedness of one’s prevailing self within one’s life story Schwartz (2013). Internalizing Symptoms The preliminary research studies all have a common flaw they don’t suggest any internalizing symptoms for immigrant-origin youth.
Katsiaficas (2013) purposed a measure of acculturative stress across generations about internalizing symptoms of immigrants of origin youth. Acculturative stress is due to multiple challenges and is the stress directly arising from the acculturation process (Katsiaficas, 2013). These challenges are due to learning a new non-native language, confusing cultural rules, struggling to negotiate differences across cultural boundaries, and experiences of prejudice and discrimination (Berry, 1997; Sirin & Fine, 2007; Suarez Orozco & Suarez-Orozco, 2001).
The term social support is the feeling where individuals have people to turn to in one’s life this support aided individuals emotionally by providing emotional sustenance, acceptance, and a sense of belonging (Putnam, 2000). The term internalizing symptoms meant the extent to which the individual’s feels anxiety or depression due to the acculturation stress. Katsiaficas (2013) hypothesized firstly that higher levels of acculturative stress would relate to higher levels of internalizing symptoms. Secondly, that the first generation immigrants would experience more acculturative stress than the second generation immigrants. Thirdly, that