This literary writing will attempt to examine the impact of domestic violence (DV) in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender community (LGBT) and demonstrate the plethora of disparities that impact this community in the DV arena. Domestic violence is statistically more prominent in a homosexual relationship than in a heterosexual (cisgender) relationship (White & Goldberg, 2006). Domestic violence is associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) (Dunne, 2014).
The National Coalition Against Domestic Violence (NCADV, n. d) states: Two out of every five gay and bisexual men experience abusive partner relationships, comparable to two out of five heterosexual women who endure domestic violence; 50 percent of lesbian women have experienced or will experience domestic violence in their lifetime. In a survey of one year’s time, 44 percent of victims of LBGTQ domestic violence identified as men while 36 percent identified as women (para, 2. ).
Domestic violence brings about a great deal of disparities. It is solidified by the literary information used to examine how and why it exists through an analyses of discrimination, health care, and human rights/legislation impacting this population. Same-sex domestic violence in the LGBT community is not taken as seriously as in heterosexual relationships (National Coalition Against Domestic Violence, n. d) (NCADV). There is lack of trust regarding law enforcement dealing with LGBT domestic violence (NCADV, n. . ; Stotzer, 2010; Guadalupe-Diaz, 2013). Domestic violence occurs when a partner and/or significant other attempts to physically or psychologically dominate another (White & Goldberg, 2006; Hatzenbuehler, Duncan, & Johnson, 2015). Domestic violence in heterosexual and LGBT relationships are similar yet different. Abusive partners in LGBT relationships use the same tactics to gain power and control as abusive partners in heterosexual relationships (Dunne, 2014).
Tactics that are commonly used in LGBT domestic violence and cisgender relationships are physical, sexual and/or emotional abuse, with financial control being the culprit for many victims to stay in unwanted relationships (Fox, 2010; National Coalition of Anti-Violence Projects, 2015) (NCAVP) . Moreover, domestic violence occurs at least as frequently, or more so, between same-sex couples compared to heterosexual couples (Almeida, Johnson, Corliss, Molnar, Azrael, 2008). Previous studies indicate that domestic violence affects 25 percent to 75 percent of lesbian, gay and bisexual individuals (Dunne, 2014).
An estimated one in four heterosexual women experience domestic abuse, with rates significantly lower for heterosexual men (Dunne, 2014). Domestic violence among this population is ignored due to political correctness and the social construction of gender roles that men and women are expected to play in society (Chamie & Mirkin, 2011). The social construction of women is labeled as passive, dependent, nurturing and men are labeled as strong, powerful, provider, and protector (Crisp, 2006; Hooughe &Meesen, 2013).
Forms of discrimination such as homophobia, and heterosexism, with the belief that heterosexuality is normative within society; domestic violence has been portrayed as being between the male perpetrator and the female victim (Dunne, 2014; Frederiksen-Goldsen & Espinoza, 2014). It is argued that the fear of reinforcing negative stereotypes lends itself to community members, activists, and victims to deny the extent of violence among LGBT persons (Riggle, Rostosky & Horne, 2010) hence, the silence amongst the LGBT community.
Additionally, domestic violence within the LGBT community breeds self-destructive behavior with substance abuse, promiscuous activities, health risks, homelessness, and isolation/depression (Bell, Omad & Sherman, 2006; Frederiksen-Goldsen, & Espinoza, 2014). For some within the LGBT population abuse of drugs is a temporary (Braine, 2014), though artificial solution to relieving the crisis of mental, physical and emotional anguish (Escoffier, 2011; Lick, Durso & Johnson, 2013) which contributes to non-existent health care (Braine, 2014).
Self-disclosure experiences of discrimination and hate crimes, internalized homophobia, and sexual and gender identity are associated with relationship quality and domestic violence (Hatzenbuehler et al. , 2015; Rosario, Schrimshaw & Hunter, 2011). The shortfall of disclosure can lead to LGBT persons becoming isolated within their relationship, increasing pressure to maintain the status quo (Riggle et al. , 2010). The health risk that stems from domestic violence within the LGBT community is high (Almeida, Johnson, Corliss, Molnar & Azrael, 2009).
Studies show that LGBT experience health issues and barriers related to their sexual orientation and gender identity or expression (Escoffier, 2011). Many LGBT people avoid or delay health care and receive inappropriate health care because of homophobia/transphobia and discrimination by healthcare providers (Braine, 2014, Tyler, 2008). Moreover, transgenders are discriminated upon in accessing shelters because some health care providers refuse to recognize their (transgender) identity (Escoffier, 2011).
Transgenders that are accepted in some shelters, are either harassed physically or sexually (Fredriksen-Goldsen, 2010; Braine, 2014) and/or the staff forces trans genders to live the opposite of their chosen gender identity as the wrong gender (White & Goldberg, 2006). Transgender women and trans people of color were more likely to be turned away or experience harassment and assault in shelters (Escoffier, 2011; Nadal, 2013). One of the many impacts of domestic violence is discrimination. Discrimination for the LGBT community is experienced every day within the employment sector, social sector and family members (Almeida et al. 2009; Fox, 2010).
The LGBT community bears the brunt of social and economic marginalization due to discrimination based on their gender identity or expression not readily accepted by the general public (White & Goldberg, 2006). Advocates confront this reality regularly working with LGBT who have lost custody of their child(ren), and lost housing/ jobs (Crisp, 2006). This population experiences mistreatment and violence by police, family members, work environment and society as a whole (Hatzenbuehler et al. , 2015).
LGBT individuals are unable to access the proper health care they need and are often discriminated upon because of their gender identity (Wright, Colgan, Creegan & McKearney, 2006). Policymakers, service providers, media and society at large have dismissed or discounted the needs of the LGBT community (Vitulli, 2010). A lack of hard data on the scope of anti-transgender discrimination has hampered the work to make substantive policy changes to address these needs (Brubaker, 2009). Overall, domestic violence for LGBT members ought to be researched in order to bring awareness and understanding.
Problem Statement The LGBT members’ paucity of domestic violence victim support and resources lends itself to continued discrimination, health issues, fear of rejection/isolation and the need for adequate legal protection in the United States (U. S) (Hubbard, Snipes, Perrin, Morgan, Dejesus & Bhattacharyya, 2013), as well as in the United Kingdom (U. K. ) (Wright, et al. 2006). Proper training and awareness for the LGBT community though highly necessary and encouraged, is not widely adhered to (Hubbard et al, 2013). Lesbian, gay and transgender people, especially those of color, experience violence at isproportionately high rates compared to heterosexual people (Stotzer, 2010). According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC, 2014), “biases against sexual orientation and gender identity account for more than 21 percent of hate crimes reported in 2013, with sexuality the second most common single-bias category following race (p. 1). ”
Moreover, National Victims’ Constitutional Amendment Passage (NVCAP, 2015), found that, “while transgender survivors and victims’ represented only 19 percent of anti-LGBT violence reported to the organization, transgender women of color accounted for 50 percent of homicide victims (p. 2). DV and IPV against sexual and gender minority individuals does not just occur in the context of social structures that marginalize and oppress LGBT persons but also in the context of intersecting structures such as racism, and classism (Hirschel, Pattavina, & Faggiani, 2008, Guadalupe-Diaz, 2013, Lick et al. , 2013).
Discrimination in the LGBT community is a major component with DV. A white gay person appears to be more acceptable within the LGBT community than African Americans. African American gays have to make the choice to live openly or stay behind closed doors to protect themselves against discrimination and violence (Hubbard et al. 2013, Guadalupe-Diaz, 2013). Societal pressures on African American LGBT are such that one lives in fear of ridicule for being who they want to be and fear of having to repress one’s true identity in order to feel and/or be accepted (Fox, 2010; Lick et al, 2013). The American society is an environment where LGBT people are made to stifle themselves on one hand, but subject themselves to violence on the other. Social and systematic discrimination, with inadequate health care access, contribute to health disparities for the LGBT community (Fredriksen-Goldesen & Espinoza, 2014).
LGBT individuals are more likely than are straight people to report unmet health needs and have difficulty accessing care (Wolitski et al, 2008; Riggle et al, 2010) and obtaining insurance, which contributes to higher rates of disease, chronic illness such as Human Immune Virus (HIV)/Auto Immune Disease Syndrome (AIDS), drug use (Tyler, 2008; Rosario, et al, 2011, Escoffier, 2011) and mental illness, among the population (Braine, 2014). These disparities are exacerbated for the LGBT community. For example, an African American gay man faces inqualities common to his community as well as those suffered by the LGBT community.
And a transgender Hispanic-speaking person, regardless of their gender identity/sexual orientation, must handle multiple situations of discrimination based on language, ethnicity, and gender (Wright et al, 2006; White & Goldberg, 2006; Sargeant, 2009). In light of the absence of proper training on jobs relative to law enforcement agencies, coupled with the lack of knowledge or acceptance within the LGBT family members creates fear, anxiety, and isolation/depression (Rosario et al. , 2011) adding to the increase in drug abuse and/or suicide (Escoffier, 2011).
Questions of gender, race and class have long been an issue, if not the center of discussions of domestic violence (Guadalupe-Diaz, 2103; Wright, et al. 2006). Being ousted by society can be frightening, however, being ousted by family members and colleagues can present devastating effects on LGBT mentally, physically, and emotionally (Fox, 2010). Therefore based on these reasons, there is a need to explore this challenge and identify strategies to mitigate and/or combat the impact of domestic violence within this population.
Background and Need In order to discern the complexities of the LGBT community, one must first mention a brief historical synopsis of it. In the early 19th century, European doctors and scientists such as Sigmund Freud and Magnus Hirschfield studied human sexual behavior (Aldrich & Wotherspoon, 2002). They were supportive of homosexuality/bisexuality because they believed it was a natural process of humans’ bodies and psyches. Freud and Magnus did not believe homosexuality to be an illness nor crime. In the United States, the Stonewall Riot was the beginning of the Gay Liberation Movement for change in Greenwich Village New York City in 1969.
Greenwich Village at the time was known as the LGBT community (Stonewall, 2009). The riot was necessary because gays, lesbians, and transgenders were no longer going to be ridiculed, bullied and ostracized (Stonewall, 2009). The LGBT community wanted to let society know that they are human-beings and they should be treated fairly (PBS, 2012). The Stonewall Riot Movement was one of the gay liberation movements to bringing awareness and understanding about the LGBT community, hence the celebration of Gay Pride Day (PBS, 2012; Stonewall, 2009).
Domestic violence is prominent in a homosexual relationship, if not more so than in a heterosexual relationship (White & Goldberg, 2006). Domestic violence is also associated with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) (“National Intimate Partner”, 2010). “LBGTQ”(2015) found the following: “44% of lesbian and 61% bisexual women compared to 35% of heterosexual women experienced rape, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner in their lifetime. And 26% of gay men and 37% bisexual men-compared to 29% of heterosexual men experience the same (para. 2-3). These staggering numbers for domestic violence with LGBT people indicates that there is need for laws to be put in place for their protection. Many members of the LGBT community remain closeted and anonymous due to the stigma of being recognized as anything other than heterosexual adding to the fear, anxiety and distress of even seeking assistance and/or support (Almeida, et. al, 2009).
The mere implications of being associated with the LGBT community can bring stress and undue painful discrimination and judgment breeding pressure at home and in the workforce (Fox, 2010; Lick et al. 2013; Wright et al, 2006). Simply surviving one’s own identity can prove to be life threatening in some cases. Members of the LGBT community seeking any form of assistance, support or service is not feasible nor viable option (Rosario, et. al, 2012). Lesbian domestic violence is considered to be a violent and coercive behavior with the need to control the partners’ thoughts, beliefs and/or conduct that she sees fit if the other partner decides to resist the perpetrator’s control (Fox, 2010).
Battered gay and bisexual men differ from battered women in how they respond to and conceptualize domestic violence regardless of the similarity of abuse they experience (Stozter, 2010; White & Goldberg, 2006; Hatzenbuchler, et al, 2015) Often, men cannot see themselves as victims, even when their partners commit violence against them (White & Goldberg, 2006) Bisexual women and men are at the highest risk for violence (“What is domestic violence? ”, n. d. ).
Domestic violence towards bisexuals stems from the over-sexualization of bisexuality in the media (Braine, 2014; Stotzer, 2010). Bisexuals suffer innuendos of being very promiscuous and morally-ambiguous, with claims often cheating on their partners or threatening their partners identity in some way (Escoffier, 2011). Similarly, many transgender individuals, especially transgender people of color, are in personal relationships that are violent and abusive initiating the need for hospitalization (Guadalupe-Diaz, 2013).
Health concerns for LGBT individuals, CDC, (2014) states, “there is a need for culturally competent medical care and prevention services that are specific to this population. Social inequality is often associated with poorer health status, and sexual orientation has been associated with multiple health threats (p. 1). ” Members of the LGBT community are at increased risk for a number of health threats when compared to their heterosexual peers because of domestic violence (Hirschel et al. , 2008).
Abusive partners in LGBT relationships reinforce their tactics which maintain power and control with societal factors that compound the complexity a survivor faces in leaving or getting to a safe place in an LGBT relationship (Fox, 2010). Therefore bringing understanding to the epidemic of domestic violence in the LGBT community, which is already faced with insurmountable disparities, is needed. Purpose The purpose of this literary quest is to bring awareness to domestic violence and the impact it has on the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community (LGBT).
Suffering mentally, physically and emotionally and not receiving the proper help is horrific (Hatzenbuehler et al, 2015). The absence of proper training on jobs legislation/law enforcement and the lack of knowledge or acceptance within the LGBT family members creates fear, anxiety, depression and/or suicide (Hooghe & Meeusen, 2013). DV with LGBT individuals are discriminated against socially and ethically (Hubbard, et al. , 2013). The objective for examining domestic violence in the LGBT community is to determine why it is not addressed as fervently as cisgender domestic violence among law enforcement.
Domestic violence within the LGBT community brings an onslaught of negative effects such as promiscuity (Marshal, Friedman, Stall, King, Miles & Gold, 2008), depression (Escoffier, 2011) and substance abuse (Braine, 2014). This paper will attempt to provide national and international views of the impact domestic violence has on the LGBT community. Rationale Domestic violence within LGBT relationships must be examined due to biases towards the heterosexual relationship as a whole (Olson, Cadge & Harrison, 2006; Wright, et al. , 2006).
The response to heterosexual domestic violence is addressed differently because often times it is the woman that is being physically, mentally and/or emotionally abused by her intimate partner (NCADV, n. d. ; Almeida, et al, 2009). Law enforcers, organizations and families often come to the aid of the women simply because they feel the woman is of a weaker sex (Moon, 2007; Olson et al. , 2006). Although the cisgender community and the LGBT community experience physical, emotional and mental abuse both situations should be considered as equally important.
Discrimination, race, class, age and ethnicity are major components in domestic violence for heterosexuals, but more so with LGBT individuals (“National Intimate Partner,” n. d). Experiences of being bullied and victimized (Almeida, et al, 2009) are risk factors for multiple adverse mental health outcomes (Braine, 2014; Bell et al. , 2006). Guadalupe-Diaz (2013) notes that gay men are less likely to seek help for fear of shame and guilt. Whereas, Bell et al. (2002) points out that lesbian women regardless of race, class, age or ethnicity stand a better chance of receiving help without being ostracized; however Braine, (2014) claimed that while most non-profit services provide free resources, structural barriers to access that affects groups within lower economic class with regards to geographic isolation, transportation issues and/or the inflexibility of work responsibilities place LGBT victims at a greater disadvantage. Theory
In order to get a complete understanding of this analysis, social control theory will provide supportive theoretical framework. Social control theory is based on the perception that relationship conflicts result from an individual’s need to obtain and maintain power and control over the relationship. Relationships, commitments, values, and beliefs encourage conformity [informal] (Ngo, Paternoster, Curran, and Mackenzie, (2011). Moral codes are internalized and individuals will be willing to restrain from deviant acts (Hirschi, 2002).
It is the power of internal means of control, of one’s conscious and awareness about what is right or wrong in hopes to decrease the likelihood that one will deviate from social norms. Social control theory stands in contrast to external means of control, in which individuals conform because an authority figure such as the state and/or country threatens sanctions should anyone disobey (Hirschi, 2002; Ngo et al, 2011). Futhermore, the concept of social control theory is complex because norms vary often across groups, times, and places.
Basically, what one group may consider acceptable, another may consider deviant (Hirschi, 2002; Ngo et al. , 2011). In other words, there are several countries that have the stiffest laws against homosexuality which are: Sierra Leone (life imprisonment), Sudan (life and/or death or 100 lashes and five years), Iran, Iraq, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia and Mauritania to name a few because of their deeply rooted religious beliefs (“Where is it illegal”, 2014).
Whereas, in 2015, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled all state bans on same-sex marriage unconstitutional, which allows gay and lesbian couples to marry nationwide. Utah became the first state to enact a Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA). Massachusetts became the first state to legalize same-sex marriage following a ruling by the state’s highest court in 2003 (“Same-Sex Marriage”, 2015, para. 1) Domestic violence, discrimination, health issues and human rights/legislation within the LGBT relationships must be examined due to biases against this population as a whole.
Heterosexual domestic violence is taken seriously because often times it is the woman that is being physically, mentally and/or emotionally abused by her intimate partner. Law enforcers, health care providers, organizations and families often come to the aid of the women simply because they feel the woman is of a weaker sex (Sargent, 2009). Although, heterosexuals and the LGBT community experience physical, emotional and mental abuse both situations are equally as important.
Research Question What is the impact of domestic violence in the LGBT community? ? Definitions Domestic Violence: Domestic violence is the willful intimidation, physical assault, battery, sexual assault, and/or other abusive behavior as part of a systematic pattern of power and control perpetrated by one intimate partner against another. It includes physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence, and emotional abuse. The frequency and severity of domestic violence can vary dramatically; however, the one constant component of domestic violence is one partner’s consistent efforts to maintain power and control over the other (“What is domestic violence”, n. . ). Discrimination: making a distinction with unfair treatment against an individual because of gender identity, including transgender status, or because of sexual orientation (Fox, 2010). Transphobia: is a range of antagonistic attitudes and feelings against trans sexuality and transsexual or transgender people. Transphobia can be emotional disgust, fear, anger or discomfort felt or expressed towards people who do not conform to society’s gender expectations (Sargent, 2009).
Homophobia: dislike of or prejudice against homosexual people (Sargeant, 2009). Cisgender: cisgender is a term for someone who has a gender identity that aligns with what they were assigned at birth (“Cisgender”, 2014). Transgender: someone whose internal sense of gender differs in some way from the sex the person had or was identified as having a birth (“Transgender”, 2014). Lesbian: a woman who is sexually attracted to other women; a female homosexual (“Lesbian”, 2014). Bisexual: sexually attracted to both men and women (“Bisexual”, 2014).
The overall purpose of Chapter one was to get a clear understanding what domestic violence lends itself to such as discrimination (family, friends and the general population), healthcare issue (substance abuse, promiscuity, isolation/depression and victimization) , and human right issues (proposing rights for protection for LGBT persons). Chapter two will further explore the literature review from one’s own perspective. The literature review will consist of compare and contrasting of their writings from one’s point of view. ? Chapter Two Literature Review
Scholarly and peer reviewed literature was conducted in order to get a full understanding of the negative impact DV has on the LGBT community. Government research indicates men and women will experience domestic violence at some point in their lifetime (Dunne, 2014). Women are more likely to experience repeat victimization and serious injury (Braine, 2014). DV knows no boundaries of race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, age, gender identity, income or class (Hatzenbuehler, 2015). In addition, everyone has a sexual orientation and a gender identity.
Discrimination against anyone based on their sexual orientation and/or gender identity is an issue that transcends the LGBT community and it affects everyone. However, the review is focused on the LGBT community. It will examine related literature on domestic violence, discrimination, health and legislation/human rights. Domestic Violence The experience of domestic violence in a heterosexual relationship and LGBT relationship are indicative of one another. They both exhibit three main phases of domestic violence. NCADV (n. d. states the phases are: the tension building phase (control, bully, but the victim attempts to pacify the abuser to stop); the explosion or acute battering incident phase (abuser become physical and/or verbally abusive), and the honeymoon phase (the abuser apologizes to the victim profusely, attempting to convince them it will not happen again). Furthermore, NCADV (n. d. ) point out other types of abuse that exist for LGB which is physical (via body or property) sexual (forced or coerced) emotional/verbal (demean or intimidate), financial (use or misuse of victims money without consent) and identity abuse (threat of outing the victim).
Lastly, transgenders abuse consist of denying the partner’s access to medical treatment or hormones and/or manipulating one to not pursue medical treatment. Sargeant (2009) claims that domestic violence in LGBT relationships are overlooked because being involved in a same-sex relationship will force them to reveal their sexual orientation and sexual identity. However, Fox (2010) argues that same-sex relationships are not overlooked if LGBT have a [safe place] to go. Domestic violence is overlooked and unreported due to being ousted amongst family, friends, and co-workers (Guadalupe-Diaz, 2013).
Escoffier, (2011) emphasizes losing one’s home, family, and job are put at risk if in fact, identifying as gay, lesbian or transgender person causing one to become silent about DV and/or IPV. Wright et al. , (2006) declares that the acknowledgement and presence of an equal opportunities and diversity policy that includes sexual orientation, allows the employee to feel included instead of excluded. McKeown, Nelson, Anderson, Low, and Elford (2010) argue that Black African and Caribbean men lack acceptance of homosexuality with their families and society as a whole because it is generated by fear and deeply rooted religious beliefs.
It is considered [taboo] going against their cultural beliefs about masculinity. McKeown et al. , (2010) also states African and Caribbean men believe homosexuality is a white man’s disease, and if in fact he has sex with a man, he is considered a traitor to his race, hence the silent syndrome in the LGBT community. According to Guadeloupe-Diaz (2013), “domestic violence disparities for LGBT people seeking help from friends are the most common form of help among LGBT victims of intimate partner violence (p. 7) However, Guadalupe-Diaz (2013) also insist the curtailment of trust for the law enforcement /judicial system is well documented across diverse communities. Brubaker (2009) argues that the treatment of the cisgender population reporting domestic violence with colleges/universities, military and society as a whole is favorable to seek justice because of societal attitude towards heterosexual relationships. Hence, the reason for the continued silence epidemic within the LGBT community (Hooghe & Meeusen, 2013).
According to Stotzer (2010), violence on campuses of colleges/universities are not tolerated because the institutions mandate their campus police to take equality and diversity courses in order to get a better understanding on how to ascertain the situation of this population . For example, Goodenow, Szalacha and Westheimer (2006) confirms that the positive impact of LGBT support groups within the educational institutes may help to counter the effects of discrimination/victimization as well as a lowering the rate of suicide attempts. However, the sole reason LGBT DV is going unreported is because of fear (Frederiksen & Espinoza , 2014).
Hirschel et al, (2008) states that the reason the LGBT community remains silent is the stigma of revealing one’s true gender identity and fear of being classified as mentally unstable and dysfunctional. Therefore, Olson et al. , (2013) claims the LGBT refuses to acknowledge their gender identity because the Christian society deem the LGBT population as mentally unstable and their relationship is unnatural and a sin. Hatzenbuehler et al. , (2015) concurs with Frederisken and Espinoza (2014) that gay or transgenders are afraid of possibly losing their jobs if they identify their gender.
Diamond (1999) argues that the LGBT individuals also stand a significant chance of losing their children via the court system due to Christian influences of the political/ judical system after the parent has been ousted. Hooghe & Meeusen (2013) confirms that a homophobic attitude contributes to being unemployed, loss of income, health benefits, shelter, food, et cetera. However, DV with LGBT and heterosexual relationships go through the same vicious cycle of mental, physical and emotional turmoil (Hirschel et. al. 2008, CDC, 2014; NCADV, n. d). Domestic iolence is described as: Emotional abuse exhibits behaviors used by one person in a relationship to control the other. Partners may/or may not be married; heterosexual, gay, or lesbian; living together, separated or dating. Violence can be criminal and includes physical assault (hitting, pushing), sexual abuse (unwanted or forced sexual activity), and stalking (physically, phone calls and/or texting).
Although emotional, psychological and financial abuse is not criminal behaviors, they are forms of abuse and can lead to criminal violence. (NCADV, n. d. para. 1) Opponents argue that allowing transgenders to define their gender identity would be catastrophic if the justice system garners special requests for human rights. However, Linneman (2004) retorts having basic fundamental human rights for this population should not be slighted because of one’s gender identity/sexual orientation. Diamond (1999) retorts, Christians believe that legalizing same-sex marriages would mandate religious establishments and/or pastors to marry gay couples, despite clear religious exemptions in marriage equality legislation.
However, now that marriage has been accomplished for LGBT individuals in some states, the next topic at hand is playing a major role in debates about accommodations for transgender people (i. e. restrooms). Moon (2007) notes Christians claim a religious freedom law was needed to safeguard churches from being forced to build gender neutral bathrooms. However, Nagada (2006) claim, the anti-LGBT legal organization leading the fight against accommodating transgenders claimed that these protections violate the religious autonomy of cisgender (Nagada, 2006).
Religion and politics boar homophobic/transphobic and heterosexist attitudes nationally and internationally contributing to health disparities within the LGBT community. Health Issues Escoffier (2011) state promiscuous activities can also become a negative facet of enduring domestic violence in the LGBT community as a means to secure a source of income in an effort to afford the daily provisions of life such as food and shelter. Braine (2014) indicated that persons in the LGBT community particularly in the lower economic end of the spectrum often find themselves in unsavory predicaments.
Nevertheless, Fredriksen-Goldesen & Espinoza (2014) claim anti-gay bias among professional healthcare, results in LGBT patients receiving sub-par services and experiencing direct or indirect discrimination and/or exclusion when they use mental health services. Becoming involved with promiscuity without protection [bareback] lends itself to diseases such Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/ Auto Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) not only with LGBT, but with heterosexuals as well (Escoffier, 2011).
Correspondingly, domestic violence coupled with substance abuse and emotional/mental neurasthenia is associated with LGBT person health concerns (Almeida, et al, 2009). This population suffers stress from facing obstacles such as discrimination, stigma, and family rejection (Crisp, 2006). Marshal et al. , (2008) emphasizes, when a person is under chronic stress, that chronic stress results in negative health outcomes.