According to my 3-Day Average Food Groups report, I consumed no whole grains. MyPlate recommends eating minimum of three grains of whole grains daily, and it is recommended that people of my gender and age eat six ounces per day. I could increase my whole grain intake by eating whole grain cereal (when I do eat them) and using whole grain types when I am cooking pasta or rice. Some obstacles for achieving this goal includes time and money. As a student I lack time to make a trip to the grocery store (especially with the lack of a car) and time to actually cook.
Other obstacle includes money—healthy products often cost more, which influences my decision to buy. Furthermore, since my intake of food is limited per day, I tend to choose foods that are more flavorful, which are not whole grain products. Fruits and Vegetables > According to my 3-Day Average Food Groups report, I was under my fruits target by one cup. MyPlate recommends eating 2 cups of fruits daily for women ages 19-30. For my vegetable intake, I was under by an average of 1. 25 cups. MyPlate recommends eating 2. 5 cups of vegetable per day for women ages 19-30.
The primary way to increase my intake of fruits and vegetables would simply be buying them when I go grocery shopping. That way I would be able to eat them since I would have them available in my house. I could eat fruits and vegetables as snacks after meal or incorporate them in the meal itself. Again, money and time are the biggest issue. When I go grocery shopping, I tend to not reach for fruits because they have a short shelf life. Furthermore, since time is key, I also tend not to buy fruits that require peeling (I only buy apples because I am following this diet plan).
For vegetables, I do buy leafy greens, but I have a tendency of not eating them because I always crave some kind of food– and it stays in my fridge for 2 weeks, barely touched. Protein > My RDA for protein is, my weight being 53kg * 0. 8g Protein/kg. Thus, my RDA is 42. 4g Protein. I am over my RDA for protein– while my RDA is 42. 4 grams, I am consuming 56 grams per day. As we have learned, when excess protein is consumed, it gets turned into AcetylCoA and gets stored as fat. Furthermore, excessive protein intake can also cause kidney disease and heart disease.
Fat > Surprisingly, my daily total fat intake is in the normal range. On the other hand, as I expected, my saturated fat intake was over by 3% of the daily recommended dose. As much as I would hate to do it, I would cut out junk food out of my diet, such as brownies, chips, etc. To increase the amount of good fats, I would increase my intake of nuts such as almonds, and eat fatty fishes which have omega 3 fatty acids. Calories > My overall caloric intake is under by 1200 calories. I expected it to be under but not by this much.
If I continue to limit my caloric intake, I will lose weight, but most likely I’ll lose my muscles first. My BMI is 21. 9, and BMI, or body mass index, tells us how much body fat one has. My desirable body weight is 50kg, or 110lbs. I determined this value by my past experiences, because I felt the best when I had this weight. At first I aimed for 100lbs or less, but I realized that it is an unhealthy ideal. My current weight goal is to lose fat and gain muscles. Vitamins > The values for all my vitamins were under 80% below my DRI.
The most vitamin I consumed was Vitamin K, at 68. 9%. Deficiency of Vitamin A can lead to infectious disease and night blindness. Deficiency of vitamin B6 can cause weakness, depression, confusion, irritability, dermatitis, anemia, and convulsions. Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause tingling, weakness, and numbness. Vitamin C deficiency causes scurvy. Deficiency of vitamin D may cause osteoporosis. Deficiency of vitamin E can lead to nerve damage and erythrocyte hemolysis. Deficiency of vitamin K can lead to clotting impairment. Lack of folate may lead to anemia.
Deficiency of thiamine can cause beriberi, weight loss, neurological disturbances, muscular weakness, and heart problems, while deficiency of niacin may cause pellagra. Riboflavin deficiency causes the corners of mouth to crack and sore throat. Choline deficiency can cause disorders in many bodily systems, including liver, muscle, and lymphocytes. https://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC2518394/ Since all foods have different combinations of vitamins, I would need to eat variety of foods. I think the major problem is that I eat food in small quantities.
On a side note, for fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) I would eat various vegetables such as green, leafy, and pigmented vegetables, vegetable oils, dairy products, nuts, eggs, and fatty fishes. Vitamin B6 intake can be increased by eating meats, fish, poultry, potatoes, legumes, non-citrus fruits, and soy products. I can increase my vitamin B12 intake by eating foods derived from animals such as meat, milk, and eggs. Folate intake can be increased by consuming fortified grains, leafy green vegetables, legumes, seeds, and liver.
I can increase my thiamine intake by eating enriched, fortified, or whole-grain products, and pork. Niacin intake can be increased by eating milk, eggs, whole-grain and enriched breads, and all protein-containing foods. Riboflavin intake is increased by eating milk products, enriched, fortified, or whole-grain products, and liver. Choline intake can be increased by eating egg, liver, and peanuts. With the amount of vitamins I am currently getting, it would be beneficial if I took vitamin supplements.
However, it would be most desirable if I could get more vitamins by eating actual food, since supplementation of some vitamins may cause toxicity, such as beta carotene toxicity causing the skin to be bright orange / yellow. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels are highest average daily nutrient intakes that are likely to pose no toxicity risk to individuals in a life stage and gender group. None of my vitamin levels went over the DRI. The vitamin I consumed the most was Vitamin K, and vitamin K toxicity is unknown. Minerals > All my intakes were under the DRI for minerals as well, except for sodium.
For me, a twenty-year-old-female, calcium deficiency would cause osteoporosis. Potassium deficiency may cause muscle weakness. Deficiency of copper may cause problems related to blood, such as anemia. Iron deficiency will also lead to anemia. Deficiency of magnesium will cause weakness and confusion. Phosphorous deficiency remains unknown. Selenium may lead to heart disease. Zinc deficiency will lead to impaired immune function and loss of appetite. To increase my intake of these minerals, I will need to do the same as I did with the vitamins—increase my overall food intake, with different kinds of food.
I will increase my calcium intake by eating milk and dairy products, small fish, tofu, greens, and legumes. Potassium intake can be increased by consuming whole foods such as meats, milk, fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes. Eating seafood, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and drinking water will increase my copper intake. Iron intake can be increased by eating red meats, fish, poultry, shellfish, eggs, and legumes. Magnesium intake can be increased by eating nuts, legumes, whole grains, dark green vegetables, and seafood.
I can increase my phosphorous intake by eating animal tissues, such as meat. Selenium intake can be increased by eating seafood, organ meats, whole grains, and vegetables depending on soil content. I can increase my zinc intake by eating protein containing foods, such as meat, grain, and vegetables. Being female and having a history of anemia, it would be beneficial for me to take a mineral supplement, especially that of iron. However, like vitamins, it would be best if I got all my minerals from my food intake, as supplements may lead to toxicity of minerals.
Nonetheless, it would be best for me to take mineral supplements, since all my mineral intakes were 80% below the DRI. None of my mineral intake went over the tolerable upper limit. The mineral I consumed the most was sodium. Sodium toxicity is infamous for hypertension, which may lead to heart attack, stroke, aneurysm, and impaired kidney function. My 3-day average calcium intake was 281mg, while the DRI was 1000mg, so less than the DRI. I can increase my calcium intake by eating milk and milk products, oysters, small fishes with bones, tofu, greens, and legumes.
Excessive intake of calcium may lead to constipation, increased risk of kidney stone formation, and interference from absorption of other minerals. My 3-day average iron intake was 2mg, while the DRI was 18mg, less than the DRI. I can increase my iron intake by eating red meats, fish, poultry, shellfish, eggs, legumes, and dried fruits. Excessive intake of iron may lead to infections, liver injury, acidosis, bloody stools, shock, and increased risk of heart attack. My 3-day average sodium intake was 939mg, while the DRI was less than 2300mg, less than the DRI.
I do not have to increase my sodium intake, since the DRI is less than 2300mg. I can still increase my sodium intake by eating salt and processed foods. Excessive intake of sodium will lead to hypertension which will lead to other complications such as stroke and heart disease. My 3-day average potassium intake was 869mg, while the DRI was 4700mg, less than the DRI. I can increase my potassium intake by eating whole foods such as meats, milk, fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes. Excessive intake of potassium may cause muscular weakness and trigger vomiting.