History of Peace Education
Throughout history humans have taught each other conflict resolution techniques to avoid violence. Peace education is the process of teaching people about the threats of violence and strategies for peace. Peace educators try to build consensus about what peace strategies can bring maximum benefit to a group.
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Peace education activities that attempt to end violence and hostilities can be carried UT informally within communities or formally within institutional places of learning, like schools or colleges. Peace education has been practiced informally by generations of humans who want to resolve conflicts in ways that do not use deadly force. Indigenous peoples have conflict resolution traditions that have been passed down through millennia that help promote peace within their communities.
Rather than killing each other over their disputes, they employ nonviolent dispute mechanisms that they hand down from generation to generation through informal peace education activities. Anthropologists have located on this planet at least 47 elatedly peaceful societies (Bantam, 1993). Although there are no written records, human beings throughout history have employed community-based peace education strategies to preserve their knowledge of conflict resolution tactics that promote their security. More formal peace education relies upon the written word or instruction through schooling institutions.
Perhaps the earliest written records of guidelines that teach others about how to achieve peace comes through the world’s great religions. These religions – following the teaching of such prophets as Buddha, Bullhead’s, Jesus Christ, Mohammed, Moses, and Ala TTS – have specific scriptures that advance peace. Organized religions promote their own visions of peace but ironically religions also have become a rallying cry for martyrs intent on destroying “others” who are seen as heathen because they belong to different religions.
That the great religions contribute both to war and peace might be seen as indicative of certain ironic and contradictory aspects of human nature that contribute to the great peace dilemma: Why can human beings who know about peace figure out how to live in peace? nee AT teen TLS Europeans won uses teen written word to espouse peace coeducation was Commences (1642/1969), the Czech educator who in the seventeenth century saw that universally shared knowledge could provide a road to peace. This approach to peace assumes that an understanding of others and shared values will overcome differences that lead to conflict.
The ultimate goal of education was a world in which men and women would live in harmony with acceptance of diverse cultures. The growth of peace education parallels the growth of peace movements. The modern peace movement against war began in the nineteenth century after the Napoleonic wars when progressive intellectuals and politicians formed serious societies to study the threats of war and propagate arguments against the build up of armaments. Indigenous peace organizations sprung up in Great Britain, Belgium and France.
The second wave of nineteenth century peace movements was closely associated with workingman’s associations and socialist political groupings. The last segment of the nineteenth century peace movement preceded the First World War. Peace organizations were formed in nearly all European nations during these decades spreading into the United States and the newly formed states of Italy and Germany. As the nineteenth century drew to a close, groups of teachers, students, and university professors formed peace societies to educate the general public about the dangers of war.
At the beginning of the twentieth century Europeans and Americans formed peace movements to lobby their governments against the saber rattling that eventually led to World War l. Bertha von Stutter, an Austrian who helped convince Alfred Nobel to establish a peace prize, wrote novels against war and organized international peace congresses (Human, 1996). These congresses represented the notion that international conflicts should be resolved by mediation and not weapons. The purpose of such congresses was to sway public opinion against military build ups that presaged the First World War.
Public demonstrations were also aimed at ruling elites to get them to adopt more pacifist policies. In 1912 a School Peace League had chapters in nearly every state in the United States that were “promoting through the schools … The interests of international Justice and fraternity’ (Scansion, 1959: 214). They had ambitious plans to acquaint over 500,000 teachers with the conditions for peace (Stomata-Suits, 1993). In the antebellum period between the First and Second World Wars, social studies teachers started teaching international relations so that their students wouldn’t want to wage war against foreigners.
Convinced that schools had encouraged and enabled war by indoctrinating youth into nationalism, peace educators contributed to a progressive education reform where schools were seen as a means to promote social progress by providing students with an awareness of common humanity that helped break down national barriers that lead to war. Many of the leading peace educators early in the twentieth century were women. nee Addams, an American woman won won teen Noel Peace Prize In AY, was urging schools to include immigrant groups (1907).
The slogan “peace and bread” was central to her work and articulated a vision that poverty was a cause of war. She felt that educators needed to connect to the struggles of urban America to create a true democratic community. She rejected the traditional curriculum that limited women’s educational choices and opportunities. She wanted women to work for reforms that ended child labor and was active in international campaigns for the League of Nations established after the First World War to establish a global forum hereby the nations of the world could outlaw war.
At about this same time an Italian woman, Maria Interiors, was traveling through Europe urging teachers to abandon authoritarian pedagogies, replacing them with a rigid but dynamic curriculum from which pupils could choose what to study. She reasoned that children who did not automatically follow authoritarian teachers would not necessarily obey rulers urging them to war. She saw that the construction of peace depends upon an education that would free the child’s spirit, promote love of others, and remove blind obedience to authority. Dry.