Universal Primary Education (PUP) was emphasized in the Mucosa Declaration of 1 974 as a way of transforming rural society and agriculture, from which it was acknowledged the vast majority of the population, would derive their livelihood. By the early 1 sass, external shocks (oil crises, low coffee prices, drought, and war with Uganda) and deficient economic policy caused an economic crisis that needed to be resolved through economic restructuring and recovery.
Tanzania relationship, however, with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (MIFF) was tense because of differing perspectives on the root causes of the economic crisis and how to handle it. Tanzania policy makers attributed the crisis to exogenous shocks, while the World Bank and the MIFF stressed deficient economic policies and institutions as the root cause. For the education sector, this period saw a huge reduction in resources that lead to a reversal of progress made towards Universal Primary Education during the 1 9705 and declining quantity and quality at all levels of education.
Despite subsequent progress from the economic reform efforts of the late 1 sass and asses, social indicators were stagnating including progress towards Universal Primary Education. In 1 995, the Ministry of Education prepared an Education and Training Master Plan. This was updated and further elaborated in a new phase of government policy embodied in the Education Sector Development Program (SEEDS) of 1 997 (revised in 2001), a program formulated to run from 1 998 to 2007 and to have large scale impact that would accelerate progress on stagnating education indicators.
The government also committed to the goals listed in the World Declaration on Education for All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs, which was issued in Jonnie, Thailand in 2000. Within the larger Education Sector Development Program (SEEDS), the government, together with civil society takeovers and donors, formulated a Primary Education Development Program (PEED) that took effect 2 January 2002 and ran to 2009. The World Bank supported the PEED with a SUSHI 50 million Sector Adjustment Credit in 2001, which was supplemented by a IIS$50 million contribution by the Netherlands.
The objectives of the Primary Education Development Program (PEED) were to: (a) Expand school access; (b) improve education quality; and (c) increase school retention at the primary level. These objectives would be achieved through improved resource allocation and utilization, improved educational inputs, and strengthened institutional arrangements for effective primary education delivery. The Primary Education Development Program (PEED) introduced, among other reforms, Capitation and Development Grants for direct disbursement to primary schools.
The government’s National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (2005) included a focus on education as part of its second cluster that deals with social wellbeing and quality of life. However the results have been exactly the opposite. Funding for public schools has been cut radically by the government resulting a drastic rope to resources and the quality of teachers. According to mothers of the children in Tanzania the young people have divided between to those, who have had privilege of education in private schools, and to vast majority who have been left uneducated, by the public schooling system.
Education in Tanzania is provided both by the public sector and the private sector. The general structure is as follows: 2 years of pre-primary education for ages 5-?6 (year 1 and 2) 7 years of primary education for ages 7-13 (Standard I-VII) 4 years of secondary ordinary level education for ages 14-17 (Form 1-4) 2 years f secondary advanced level education for ages 18-19 (Form 5 and 6) 3 or more years of university education Primary school tuition in public schools was eliminated in 2002, but families still must pay for uniforms, testing fees, and school supplies.
Free tuition has led to a massive increase in the number of children enrolled in primary schools, from in 2001 to in 2006 to in 2008. This increase has not been accompanied by a proportional increase in resources for teachers, classrooms, and books. The ratio of pupils to qualified teachers nationwide in 201 0 was 54:1 which was 35% above the goal of 40:1. Every region exceeded the goal except for Kilimanjaro and Dark sees Salaam. Only three percent of students in Standard VI nationwide had sole use of a mathematics textbook in 2007 compared to seven percent in 2000.
In 2006, the gross primary enrollment rate was 110. 3%, and the net primary enrollment rate was 97. 8%. The “gross primary enrollment rate” is the ratio Of the total number of students attending primary school to the official primary school-age population. The “net primary enrollment rate” is the ratio of the total number of primary school-age children enrolled in primary school to the official primary school-age population. These rates are based on the number of students formally registered in primary school and, therefore, do not necessarily reflect actual school attendance.
In 2000, 57% of children age 5-14 years attended school. Secondary education has two levels. Open Level is Form 1 through Form 4. After Form 4, a certificate is issued to all passing the Certificate of Secondary Education Examinations. Selected students may progress to A Level education (Forms 5 & 6) or ordinary’ diploma in technical colleges. Not all schools offer A Level classes, and all students at this level are awarding students. Because of the potential problems associated with boarding both male and female students, A Level schools restrict enrollment to one sex.
Private schools: Passing the Standard VII exam is not a requirement to continue education, but anyone who fails is not selected to join a government secondary school. This creates a substantial market for private schools. Some private schools cater to the economically privileged who wish for better school resources, additional courses such as computer training, and smaller class sizes. Other private schools cater toward those ho have not been selected for government schools. Government secondary schools charge tuition of about 20,000 Tanzania shillings (TTS) per year (around IIS$12).
Several fees are charged in addition to tuition, including testing fees, caution fees, watchman contribution, academic contribution, furniture contribution, identity fee, emblem fee, and fee for lunches. The government tries to keep education affordable while maintaining quality as high as possible. The number of government secondary schools, which includes community or ward based schools, has increased dramatically over he past few years, stretching scarce resources and teachers but offering an affordable education to many more students.
Still, tuition and fees are burdensome to many families, especially large families, single parent families, and orphans. Families where the parents do not yet appreciate the value of education, especially for girls, is often enough to keep them from agreeing to pay for schooling. Private secondary school annual tuitions vary from approximately TTS 200,000 (around IIS$1 50) to TTS 32 million (around US$20,000). A typical private school tuition is around TTS 700,000 ($525 LED). In 2008, the total enrollment in Forms 1-4 was 1,164,250 students, and in Forms 5-6 it was 58,1 53 students.
The total number of teachers was 32,835 and the total number of schools was 3,485. In the same year, the gross enrollment rate for Forms 1-4 was estimated at 36. 2 percent, and the net enrollment rate was estimated at 24. 4 percent. The figures for Form 5 and 6 were 4. 0 percent and 1. 4 percent, respectively. In 201 2, the total enrollment in Forms 5-6 was 78,438 students. The total number of teachers was 65,086. The secondary schools that perform highest in the national examinations employ better-trained teachers, including experienced graduates.
Higher pay and efficient school management attract the higher qualified teachers to non- government schools and seminaries. Of all teachers who have a university degree, 58 percent work in non-government schools, and of all Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science graduates with education degrees, 75 percent are absorbed in this sector. Most of the rest teach in government schools, with the result that very few are in the community-built schools. The Tanzania Institute of Education is the main body responsible for developing he curriculum.
It prepares programmed, syllabi, and pedagogical materials such as handbooks and laboratory manuals. It also specifies standards for educational materials, trains teachers on curriculum innovations, monitors curriculum implementation in schools, and evaluates and approves manuscripts intended for school use. The curriculum is composed Of twelve subjects: Swahili, mathematics, science, geography, civics, history, English language, vocational subjects, French, religion, information and communication technology, and school sports.
The focus of the curriculum is he development of the following competencies among learners: critical and creative thinking, communication, innumeracy, technology literacy, personal and social life skills, and independent learning. Except for eight schools, Swahili in 2010 was the medium of instruction in the 1 5,816 public primary schools nationwide. In contrast, English was the medium of instruction in 539 of the 551 registered private primary schools. For fiscal year 201 1/201 2, which began 1 July 201 1, the education sector national budget is 2,283 billion Tanzania shillings, which equates to IIS$I . 5 billion (at an exchange rate of ,591 shillings per dollar). This is an 11. 6% increase over the amount budgeted for fiscal year 201 0/201 1. After accounting for inflation, however, the increase is approximately 1 Oh. Based on actual performance in recent fiscal years, the amount budgeted for the Tanzania Ministry of Education and Vocational Training is typically much more than the amount spent. In fiscal year 2008/2009, the ministry spent 85. 1 billion shillings out of the 128. 5 billion budgeted. The gap between budgeted and spent has increased since then.
In fiscal year 201 0/2011 , the ministry spent only 76. 8 billion out of the 39. 7 billion budgeted. A total of SSH. 155. 1 billion was unspent in the last three years. This amount could be sufficient to build 3,875 houses for teachers according to the estimated costs of building one house at SSH. 40 million as outlined by [phase 2 of the Secondary Education Development Program]. By building these houses we could have reduced the problem of teachers lacking accommodation, especially for schools situated in remote rural villages.