World History Final Review
World Final Review: China: Major dynasties after Gin Shank Capital Angry Had dynasty ruling families Shank Kings had little land and the nobles governed most of the land and were loyal to the king Noblewomen had status Majority of people were peasants and lived in poor conditions Chief God- Shank Did Polytheistic Believed ancestor worships- helped with war and crops Chou Longest ruling dynasty Introduce feudalism Confucianism Gin Shih Humanoid: Leader Gainsaying: Capital Policy of Legalism Start of the Great Wall Terra-cotta Warriors Han Dynasty
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Wide- most famous leader;nickname “Warrior Emperor; was known for expanding borders, stressing education, increasing trade; was a hands on ruler Capital- Change Used bureaucracy and Confucianism Used civil test to give people gobo. Jobs, but only educated men would pass it and women were not allowed to take the test Major Achievements: Created acupuncture Invented paper Weak leadership and high taxes bring fall to the dynasty 0 this begins The Age of Disunity which lasts for 300 years Yuan Dynasty Yuan Dynasty (sass – sass) Genesis Khan leads Mongol Invasion Main struggle was the Great Wall
Genesis dies before invasion is complete Kabuki Khan: officially established the Mongol dynasty in China Mongol Rule: war-like people, fierce conquerors Tolerant rulers Tolerant religiously only ones allowed in government European Trade China trade with Europe for the 1st time Europeans flooded to China Marco Polo serves as Kabuki Khan’s adviser (almost 20 years) A Description of the World by Marco Polo Describes China as wealthy & great Kabuki Khan dies & the dynasty falls Mongol rule in China Genesis Khan leads the Mongol invasion of China but does not complete it The biggest obstacle is the Great Wall
Kabuki Khan completes the invasion and starts the Yuan Dynasty;Capital is Kimball the Mongols were harsh conquerors but tolerant rulers Kabuki doesn’t want Mongols and Chinese to mix b/c he is fearful he will lost power; gives only Mongols high ranking Jobs Marco Polo is the advisor to Kabuki and writes a book called Description of the World that describes china Dynasty ends with Kabuki dies begins the Mining dynasty Mining Dynasty- GHz Hanging-founder People of the dynasty sought to restore China Capital: Beijing Golden time for economy Grand Canal is restored connects Beijing in the North to
Hangout in the south Creates the Forbidden City Imperial palace for Mining rulers and was the political center; highly secured Ghent He- famous explorer of the dynasty traveled East Africa and Indian after him no more explorations because of cost and culture superiority King Dynasty Led by the Munches Government: Adopted Confucian system Local government remained in the hands of the Chinese Munch troops stationed many place to ensure loyalty Trade Maintained Mining policy of foreign trade Lord McCarty arrived in China & presented goods that Britain had to offer Whole thing was a misunderstanding China’s trade-restrictions
Geographical- had mountains(Himalayas), deserts(Gobi), and Jungle surrounding them Restricted trade with foreigners due to cultural superiority and wanted economy to continue to flow in China and not help flourish other countries Opium War addicted and china falls behind Quinn leaders ban opium and demand Brittany to stop trading it British responds with the out break of the Opium War British win the Opium War 0 Nanjing is the treaty that ends the war British gets huge indemnity get Hong Kong, China has to open 5 ports to foreign trade, British get Chinese citizenship, and British are tried by their laws when in China Tapping Rebellion
Rebellion against the King Dynasty Leader: Hong Quanta Goal: End King Dynasty-FAILS Dynasty is weakened and eventually falls on its own Sino Japanese War China vs…
Japan China loses This loss shows china’s weakness Japan gains the island Taiwan Open Door Policy US wanted the same rights British had in china This creates the Open Door Policy China is forced to agree to the policy Boxer Rebellion Other People to Know: Guan-Xx- launched the 100 days of Reform in China to help modernize tit not really successful Puppy- last Gin leader and Chinese Emperor Japan: Geography of Japan Located in a chain of islands called Archipelago mains islands Hookah, Honshu (largest), Shush, Shook majority of island is mountains Inland Sea has most influence on Japan Korea and China greatest influences on Japan Located in the Ring of Firer most susceptible to earthquakes, volcano’s, and tsunami’s Shinto Mat. Fug-beautiful mountain that is greatly connected to Shinto it means “way of the gods” worship of forces of nature Kim- clan gods/dispossessed that were nature spirits survived until the present most famous shrine is the Torsi not strict Japan and Russia were fighting over Korean and Manchuria At Port Arthur Japan attacks Russians 0 called Battle of Tsunami Japan wins
Treaty of Portsmouth Japan gained control of Korea as well as rights in party of Manchuria Feudalism in Japan Emperor is Just a figure head Shogun is supreme military leader that is actually in charge Shogun distribute land to dainty and the dainty then give it tot the samurai Samurai- “Those who Serve” Japanese dynasties Early Traditions Early Jape society divided into clans called u]’ Each juju had its own Kim 500 AD, Yamaha Clan begins and is the only dynasty in china it was established at Honshu claimed to be direct descendent of Amateurs the sun god there is were “Rising Sun” comes from in china think of nation’s flag Outgas Houghton The last shogun to rule Japan and brought 200 years of beat and prosperity Last capital was Eddo Intimation Was a warrior family dynasty that fought with the Tiara warrior family for over 30 years He reformed the daytime took away or reduced land of the dainty and any marriage, visit to other dainty, and all contacts had to be approved by the shogun.
Every other year dainty had to live in eddo The Intimation family wins the battle Hortatory is the Intimation leader and set up his own gobo in the town of Kumara Horopito becomes shogun and establishes his own shogun covet a military dictator ship Amateurs- Sun and Chief God Chinese influence on Japan Prince Shootout of the Yamaha ruling family wanted to learn more about China and sent young Jape. Nobles to study a year or more in China Japan adopts legal system of China (absolute power, bureaucracy)0 makes first capital Nora, which is modeled after Change-an Do not adopt certain things, like the civil service test Difference b/t shogun and emperor Emperor was Just a figure head and all the real work was done by a shoguns this was more of the feudalistic way of governing Cognates is a military dictatorships in which the shogun is the leader Matthew Perry and Treaty of Gangway
Mathew Perry- a commands of a fleet of American ships that sailed into the Tokyo Bay with a letter from President Fillmore Treaty of Gangway Opened two ports 0 Shimmed and Hesitate 0 in Japan to the US but there was no trade Charter Oath Prince Shootout Sent young Jape nobles to Japan to get an understanding of the Chinese culture Made two reforms because he wanted to weaken the power of the clans The 17th Article- strengthened the power of the central gobo;declared supremacy of the emperor systems and roads were built 0 country was reorganized into provinces run by people loyal to the emperor. “Tale of Genii” Ritter by Lady Muralist it is the world’s first novel Samurai and their way of life Followed a civil code called a Bushier-meaning “way of the warrior” Training began at age 3 and lasted a life-time Wealth of family dictates the type of training Had no fear of death Used Speedup 0 act of suicide by beheading by a Skunking (a good friend) if samurai was a traitor or lost a battle or brought shame or dishonesty Sino-Japanese Fight over interest in Korea – Treaty of Smokiness ends the war Japans wins because its modernized Japan gets Taiwan and China agrees to recognize Japan’s intents in Korea Mongol influence
Greece: Geography of Greece and its impact Part of the Balkan Peninsula Mountains dominate landscaped causes many city-states to develop Source of economy is the Med and the Aegean Sea Develop the alphabet The Polis Means city-state On a hilltop is the acropolis- high city Flat- flat ground where everything else is Population is small Minoans and Mycenaean Minoans were the 1st Greek civilizations Named after King Minis Successful with trade because of Aegean Had contact with Egypt and Mesopotamia Lived on the island of Knossos Civilization finished because of volcano or earthquake0Mycenaens take Minoans lace Mycenaean Richest Greek city-state Great traders 0 traded with Italy, Espy and Mesopotamia Taking control of Aegean attracted Mycenaean to Crete Played major role in the Trojan War There was a economic rivalry between Mycenae and Troy Troy had control of many important straits, such as the Dreamless The legend is that Mycenae king Agamemnon helped his brother King Menelaus go over his wife Helen who had been kidnapped by Paris, the prince of Troy Particles direct democracy: increasing the power of Athenian citizens Economically thrived and government became more democratic
Established a direct democracy Kept the Council of 500 Believed al citizens regardless of wealth should take part in government Introduced idea of Juries Citizens over 30, chosen by lot, served for 1 year on Jury Used process of ostracism: anyone seen as a threat by democracy would be banished for 10 years Culturally: Rebuilt the Acropolis Mistress Aspire, helped him create the Cultural Center of Greece, Athens Rebuilt the Parthenon Sparta and Athens-differences in society, schooling and covet Sparta- Gavotte kings, a council of elders, an assembly, 5 officials that dealt with day to day affairs (euphoria) Schooling Spartan boys start military training at age 7 and move into the barracks Society 0 isolated from everyone else Women- expected to produce healthy boys, strength their bodies, obey their father and husband, and had the right to own land Mono Age 7 start training 0 Age 20 get married but still live in barracks 0 age 30 took place in the assembly Newborn babies were check for birth defects, if they had any they were left to die Athens- Covet imperialistically with democratic reforms People were discontented and caused democracy to be established Solon appointed archon(chief official) and outlawed debt slavery and got citizen to be more active Postscripts- Athenian tyrant that seized power and wanted to help common people Calisthenics broadened the role of ordinary citizen by the council of 500 Limits of democracy only citizen could participate in the government and citizen ship was restricted to land owners School boys went to a formal school and were expected to learn rhetoric Society focused on the arts, learning, and less on the military Macedonian influence on Greece Formed the Hellenic Civilization Mecums, libraries, zoos and more were built
Women were encouraged to go out and read and write Philip and Alexander the Great Philip- the leader of Macedonian Empire he admired the Greek culture and wanted to conqueror all of Greece Oho grew up in Thebes and hired Aristotle to tutor his son Philip guilt a superb army, formed alliances, and prepared his son Philip battles Athens and Thebes at the Battle of Charlene 0 Philip wants to conquer Persia, but he dies so Alexander the Great takes over Alexander win his first victory against the Persians at Grannies River After Alexander died, there is no leader strong enough to succeed him. His empire gets divided up into 3 parts 0 Greece and Macedonia: Alexander 4th and Phillip 3rd 0 Egypt: Ptolemy 10 Perish: Selects Alexander most lasting achievement was that he spread the Greek Culture and he married a Persian women which created the Hellenic Culture (Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian) Troy and Trojan War Helen who had been kidnapped by Paris, the prince of Troy Meal’s and Agamemnon sailed to troy and a 10 year war occurred The Greeks eventually won though trickery using a giant wooden horse filled with Greek soldiers and burned Troy to the ground Henries Schlemiels excavated the site of ancient troy
Peloponnesus War and League Peloponnesus League- formed to compete with the Delia League 0 made of Sparta, Argos, Corinth, and Elis Sparta 0 Oligarchy Athens 0 democracy Lasted 27 years Athens had huge geographic disadvantage because they were on the water and Sparta was inland 0 Athens can’t use ships Sparta invades Athens Particles allowed everyone to take shelter in city walls, but people caught a plague and died Percales died and successors are weak Sparta pairs up with Persians and Sparta captures Athens Athenian Greatness ends Democratic styled gobo suffered and corruption replaced democratic ideals Sparta is fatted by Thebes Macedonia rises to power Delia League Named after the island of Dells, where the meetings take place Athens dominated the leagued controlled the treasury and used money to rebuild Athens Force city- states to be in the league This formed a lot of resentment Persian Wars and Persian invasion-Dairies, Ceres Causes Greek settlement of Ionian Greeks living in Ionian rebel Athens send forces to Ionian To punish Athens, Dairies decides to invade mainland Greece Battle of Marathon Persians landed in Marathoners Athenian defeated invaders After this Persians leave because they look week Legend of the Marathons Peptides was sent by the Greeks to run to Athens to tell of their victory. He yelled Nikkei which means victory and then he collapsed. Battle of Thermopile Ceres – leader of the Persians and invades by land and sea King Loonies – leader of the Spartan Greeks have the advantage because they know the geography The traitor Philters went to Persians and told of a way to get around the Greeks King Loonies tells the other Greeks to go and he says with his 300 Spartan men and gives Athens time.
Battle of Salamis Turning point Themselves comes up with a plan 0 send his servant as a false Greek trader to warn he Persians and that the Greeks were going to escape from Salamis that night Persians had more ships but they were big and clunky and this was a disadvantage Ceres abandoned his men and leaves General Marooning in charge Battle of Palpate Last battle of the war Results of the War If Persians won this would’ve slowed spread of democracy Greek confidence and moral is high Athens emerges as leading Greek city-state Stoicism Founded by Zone Whatever life throws at you, you accept it it and face it Christian thinks adopt this because it goes along with “god’s plan” for you Socratic Method, Aristotle, Plato Socratic Method- created by Socrates and is constant questioning to find an answer and figure things out Aristotle Most famous student of Plate Rejected democracy 1 signal virtuous ruler Established the school lyceum Accused of not respecting the gods Tutu or Alexander the Great Writings became basis for curriculum for universities across Europe Plato Socrates most famous student Reject democracy because death of Socrates Wrote The Republic and it has ideal society and philosopher king as the gobo. Makes a school called the Academy Believes that men surpass women Greek gods/goddesses Zeus- chief god
Hear- wife of Zeus; goddess of marriage Poseidon- god of the sea Ares- god of war Aphrodite- goddess of love and beauty Athena- goddess of wisdom Hermes- messenger of the gods Apollo- god of medicine and music Theodosius I Homer A blind poet Wrote The ‘Iliad (Trojan War) and the Odyssey (Adieus and Penelope) The Dorian Rome: Is a peninsula Includes a number of islands Sicily is the largest Main mountains Ranges: Apish (north) and the Apennines (length of peninsula) More fertile farm land 0 larger population Rome is built on the 7 Hills of the Tiber River Etruscan-influence, last Etruscan king Lived in North-west Rome Had military and ambitious leaders Eventually had all control of Rome Romans adopt alphabet from the Staunchest Have control of Rome for 100 years and developed it into a great city Eventually Romans overthrow Structures Last Etruscan king : Terrain 12 Tables name of the Roman laws but into writing this was pushed by the plebeians who wanted to have more rights Punic Wars Rome vs…
Cartage Cartage General: Hannibal There were 3 wars fought Rome beats Cartage in a sea battle and on Sicily 0 Rome gets Sicily, Romeos fist province on outside territory Hannibal decides to invade Italy from the North using elephants. He marches through Spain 0 crosses Pyroxenes in Spain and the Alps Hannibal shows military genius at Battle of Canaan by pretending to retreat Hannibal cannot take Rome Roman General: Spoil attacked the Carthaginian in Spain and invade North Africa Hannibal retreats to Cartage and is defeated by Spoil in the Battle of Zamia Third war isn’t really a war. It is a physical and morale destruction of Cartage by the Romans. Rome burns Cartage and sold its survivors into slavery and poisoned its land with salt. Rome also invades Macedonia Patricians and plebeians Patricians- wealthy land owners that were aristocrats
Plebeians- were the common people that had little say in the government and had to serve in the army; Roman law kept them from high ranking positions Attempted to gain more right by threatening to stop serving in the army 012 tables was written, formed their own assembly with tribunes that would suggest ideas to the Senate, eventually could marry patricians. Roman army Basic unit of the Roman army was a legion Consisted of 5,00 foot soldiers and 100+ cavalry Strengths were its discipline and organizations Used same weapons as enemies but used an improved style of the Greek phalanx Fax Roman means Roman peace Marcus Aurelia’s rule ended this time of peace Rome experiences “Golden Age” during this time It was a general time of order and good gobo. Roads built, trade flourished, etc.