Ap World History Vocabulary Words
The teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct, sides, and meditation releases one from desire, suffering, and rebirth. 8. Byzantine Economy & Society: Constantinople claimed a population of one million people or more. To feed this enormous populace, the Byzantine Empire originally depended upon Egypt as its major source of grain; however when that area was overrun by Arabs, Anatolia and the lower Danube River basin became the Empire’s major breadbasket.
The economy performed best when it was supported by a large class of free peasants 9. Byzantium & Russia: The Byzantine empire influenced the early Russians for many reasons. One was that they converted all the Slavs (Early Russians) to Christianity. After that, they took on the Greek alphabet and converted all the Bibles into a Slavic tongue Which easily meaner that they gave them language. Vladimir made the orthodox Christianity the religion of the Russians.
Soon, Russians adapted aspects of the Byzantine culture such as art, music, architecture and an example of this is Byzantine domes started to take on an onion shape which is typical in Russian churches. 10. Carolingian Empire: The Carolingian Empire united most of western Europe under a single ruler from about 751 until 987. It was named for the Carolingian, a family of Freakish kings. 1. Caste System: The caste system is a system of division of labor and power in human society. It is a system of social stratification. First est… In India by British Parliament. 12.
Chapin: The Chapin were a civilization that developed in the northern Andean highlands of Peru from 900 BC to 200 BC. They extended their influence to other civilizations along the coast. 13. Classical Greece: Classical Greece was a 200 year period in Greek culture lasting from the 5th through 4th centuries BC. This classical period had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire and greatly influenced the foundations of the Western Civilization. Much of modern Western politics, artistic thought, such as architecture, scientific thought, literature, and philosophy derives from this period of Greek history. 14.
Classical Persia: The Islamic conquest of Persia marks the beginning of the new nelsons AT Persian language anon literature. I Nils pergola producer world class Persian language poets and the language served, for a long span of time, as the lingua franca of the eastern parts of Islamic world and South Asia. 15. Decline of Carolingian Empire: Charlemagne and his advisors managed a “renaissance” in which they attempted to re-create the Roman Empire of the West as best they could. The central piece of this effort was the concentration of authority in a central government, and they were almost certain to have failed in this effort.
They failed to address the basic problems of the West: the decay of the economic infrastructure (roads, bridges) and the loss of the manufacturing and monetary subsidy that the West had obtained from the East as long as both were under the control of a single imperial authority. Most important, however, they failed to address the problem caused by the division of the state among the king’s heirs according to the traditional inheritance reactive of governing. It was only luck that had kept the Freakish realm in the hands of a single ruler from 751 to about 830 16.
Decline of Mongols: in 1335, the Mongol rule in Persia fell into political anarchy. A year later his successor was killed by an Rata governor and the Alginate was divided between the Solidus, the Salary, Aquaria Tough Temјr (d. 1353) and Persian warlords. Taking advantage of the chaos, the Georgians pushed the Mongols out of their own territory. 17. Development in Oceania: Oceania was explored by Europeans from the 16th century onwards, the Spanish, with Ferdinand Magellan in the expedition achieved the circumnavigation of the world for the first time, discovered the Marinas and other islands of Oceania.
The British followed with colonies in Australia in 1788, New Zealand in 1840 and Fiji in 1872, with much of Oceania becoming part of the British Empire. 18. Development of Pacific Islands: 19. Early Byzantine Empire: The Roman army succeeded in conquering many territories covering the entire Mediterranean region and coastal regions in southwestern Europe and north Africa. These territories were home to many different ultra groups, ranging from primitive to highly sophisticated. 20. Early Christianity: Early Christianity is generally considered as Christianity between the death of Jesus around year 30 and the First Council of Niacin in 325. 1 . Early Han Dynasty: The Han Dynasty (206 BCC – 220 CE), founded by the peasant rebel leader Lieu Bang (known as Emperor Gauze), was the second imperial dynasty of China. It followed the Gin Dynasty (221-206 BCC), which had unified the Warring States of China by conquest 22. Early Japan: Early in Japan’s history, society was controlled by a ruling elite of powerful clans. The most powerful emerged as a kingly line and later as the imperial family in Yamaha (modern Nora Prefecture or possibly in northern Shush) in the third century A.
D. 23. East African Cultures: Before Islam, animism was a common religion and African societies were ordered around by family or lineage ties 24. Economics in Classical Persia: The early Persian economy was based on herding because the land was so poor for agriculture. The Persians attributed their toughness to the meager lifestyle to which they had been acclimated for generations 25. Education & Religion in the Euro Middle Ages: Monks taught school for boys where they learned to read and write Latin.
Latin was very important because both the Bible and the Church services used that language. Bishops also taught schools called cathedral schools. The main church in Europe during the Immune Ages was ten Roman catholic concur. I nee nana AT ten concur was called a Pope. The church was the seat of learning during the Middle Ages. Monks and Nuns followed Chrism’s teachings in groups 26. Emperor Wide: Emperor Www of Han, personal name Lieu Chew, was the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty of China, ruling from 141 Bobcat BC. 27. Establishment of Nation-States in W. Europe: 28.
Expansion of Roman Empire: During 400 BC to 500 AD the Roman Empire spread its power and influence over a large part of Europe. The Romans brought centralized rulers, a system of currency, roads and cities to Europe. 29. Fall of Han Dynasty: Several reasons caused the fall of the Han Dynasty; Government corruption, peasant rebellion (Differentiable Turban revolution), power being held by feudal lords rather than by the central government. Han effectively ended when warlord Dong Zoo used Emperor Asian as a puppet, but officially it did not end until warlord Cacao Pi forced Emperor Asian to abdicate in 220 AD. 0. Fall of Roman Empire: The fall of the Roman Empire were caused by many things, Decline in Morals and Values,Public Health, but the majority of it was because of Political Corruption. 31 . Feudal Monarchies: A political and economic system of Europe from the 9th to about the 15th century, based on the holding of all land in fief or fee and the resulting relation of lord to vassal and characterized by homage, legal and military service of tenants, and forfeiture. 32. Feudal Society, Europe: The feudal system first appears n definite form in the Freakish lands in the 9th and 10th cent.
A long dispute between scholars as to whether its institutional basis was Roman or Germanic remains somewhat inconclusive; it can safely be said that feudalism emerged from the condition of society arising from the disintegration of Roman institutions and the further disruption of Germanic inroads and settlements 33. Feudalism in Europe: a European system flourishing between 800-1400 based upon fixed relations of lord to vassal and all lands held in fee (as from the king), and requiring of vassal-tenants homage and service. 34.
Feudalism in Japan: The “feudal” period of Japanese history, dominated by the powerful regional families (Adams¶) and the military rule of warlords (shogun), stretched from 1185 to 1868. 35. Freakish Empire: Franca or Frankie, also called the Kingdom of the Franks or Freakish Kingdom, Freakish Realm or occasionally Franklin, was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks from the 3rd to the 10th century 36. Germanic Invasions: Having defeated the Hung at Schools and at the Ended, migrating Germanic tribes invaded the Western Roman Empire and transformed it into Medieval Europe.
During the 5th century, as the Western Roman Empire lost military strength and political cohesion, numerous Germanic peoples, under pressure from population growth and invading Asian groups, began migrating en masses in far and diverse directions. 37. Ghana: Kingdom of, a medieval West African empire extending from near the Atlantic coast almost to Timeout; flourished from about the 9th to 12th centuries. 38. Changes Khan: Was the founder and Great Khan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his demise. 39.
Greek Philosophy: Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BCC and continued through the Hellenic eroded, at which point Ancient Greece was incorporated in the Roman Empire. It dealt with a wide variety of subjects. 40. Hamburg’s Code: The Code of Hamburg is a well-preserved Babylonian law code, dating back to about 1772 BC. It is one of the oldest cleaner writings AT gallants length n In ten world. 41. Heeders: a memoir of the Semitic peoples inhabiting ancient Palestine and claiming descent from Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; an Israelite. 42.
Hellenic Empire: Hellenic civilization (Greek civilization beyond classical Greece) represents the zenith of Greek influence n the ancient world from 323 BC to about 146 BC (as late as 30 BC). Hellenic civilization thus represents a fusion of the Ancient Greek world with that of the Near East, Middle East and Southwest Asia, and a departure from earlier Greek attitudes towards “barbarian” cultures. 43. Hellenic Philosophies l: The first way of teaching taught by Pythagoras that focused on mathematics and continuing his line of scientific work 44.
Hellenic Philosophies II: The second way of teaching, taught by Pythagoras that focused on more mythical teachings 45. Hinduism: Hinduism is the predominant religion of the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism includes a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of “daily morality” based on karma, dharma, and societal norms. Hinduism is a conglomeration of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view, rather than a rigid common set of beliefs. 46. Holy Roman Empire: The Holy Roman Empire was a varying complex of lands that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.
Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favor of the princes. In its last centuries, it had become quite close to a union of territories. The empire’s territory was centered on the Kingdom of Germany, and included neighboring territories. 47. Hominids: The Hominid, form a taxonomic family of primates, including four extant genera: chimpanzees and bonbons, gorillas, humans, and orangutans. 48. Homo Sapiens: Homo sapiens is the systematic name of the contemporary human species.
Homo sapiens sapiens more precisely picks out the subspecies of extant humans. 49. Indo-European Languages: The Indo-European languages are a family (or phylum) of several hundred related languages and dialects. It has about 449 languages and dialects. 50. Indus River Civilizations: The Indus Valley Civilization (VIC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300-1300 BCC; mature period 2600-1900 BCC) that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly present-day Pakistan and northwest India. 51. Influences of Christianity in Europe: Christianity began to lift Europe from the Dark Ages.
Christianity influence widened when the great Charlemagne became king of the Franks in 768 and brought the Lombardi and heathen Saxons under his sway. In 800 the pope proclaimed him ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. 52. Influences on the dare al-LULAS: an Arabic term that meaner the “house of Islam” and that refers to lands under Islamic rule 53. Iron Metallurgy: The history of ferrous metallurgy began far back in prehistory. The earliest surviving iron artifacts, from the 5th millennium BC in Iran and 2nd millennium BC in China, were made from meteoritic iron-nickel. 54.
Islam in Northern India: Islam came to India with the Arab merchants and traders on the Malabar Coast in the 7th century. Islam arrived in north India in the 12th century and has since become a part of Indian’s religious and cultural heritage. 55. Jansenism: An Indian religion that prescribes a path of non- violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul toward divine consciousness and liberation. 56. Jesus: Please go look in the Bible. Julius Caesar: Gallus Julius Caesar was a Roman general Ana statesman Ana a distinguished writer of Latin prose.
He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire 58. Justinian Code: Laws of the Byzantine empire based the twelve tables of Roman law, became a basis for laws in many European nations 59. Later Han Dynasty: The Eastern Han, also known as the Later Han, formally began on 5 August 25, when Lieu Xii became Emperor Gangue of Han.  During the widespread rebellion against Wang Mango, the Korean state of Gourde was free to raid Hand’s Korean commandeered; Han did not reaffirm its control over the region until 30 CE. 60.
Legacy of Classical Greece: The legacy of Greece was strongly felt by post-Renaissance European elite, who saw themselves as the spiritual heirs of Greece. Will Duran wrote in 1939 that “excepting machinery, there is hardly anything secular in our culture that does not come from Greece,” and conversely “there is nothing in Greek civilization that doesn’t illuminate our own” 61. Legalism: (Chinese Philosophy) the principles and practices of a school of political theorists advocating strict legal control over all activities, a system of rewards and punishments uniform for all classes, and an absolute monarchy. 2. Long Distance Trade in Eastern Hemisphere: The western hemisphere was experiencing too many civil wars and fought too much for there to be any long distance trade. The east,however, was mostly controlled by the Mongols and other stable empires which allowed for safer, more permanent trade. 3. Long-distance trade: Trade over long distances. 64. Macedonian Empire: Macedonia or Macedon was an ancient Greek kingdom. The kingdom, centered in the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula, was bordered by Virus to the west, Pneumonia to the north, the region of Thrace to the east and Thessaly to the south 65.
Mali and Mans MUSM: was the tenth Mans, which translates as “King of Kings” or “Emperor”, of the Mammalian Empire. At the time of Mans Muss’s rise to the throne, the Mammalian Empire consisted of territory formerly belonging to the Ghana Empire and Melee (Mali) and immediate surrounding areas. 66. Mandate of Heaven: A traditional Chinese philosophical concept concerning the legitimacy of rulers. It is similar to the European concept of the divine right of kings, in that both sought to legitimate rule from divine approval. 67. Manor Life: The parcel of land leased to a Baron by the King was known as a manor.
Under the Feudal System, the Baron had complete control of the running of the manor provided he met certain obligations set by the King. 68. Marco Polo: Marco Polo was a Venetian merchant traveler whose travels are recorded in II Million, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. 9. Marry Dynasty: The Marry Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Marry dynasty from 321 to 185 BC. Originating from the kingdom of Magmata in the Indo-Genetic plains in the eastern side of the Indian subcontinent. 70.
Amman Civilization: A Micronesian civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as for its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. Initially established during the Pre-Classic period (c. 2000 BC to AD 250). 71. Amman Culture: The Mayans ere the only ancient American civilization with a recorded history of their own, the Mayans broadcast on stone billboards (steals), the loudest messages of all Noncommercial cultures. I nee recorder on little monuments, pottery, papers, Ana skins, the grand events of their abstruse culture.
Though their hieroglyphs remain to be totally deciphered, we may soon have the benefit of viewing an advanced civilization built upon “primary technology” taken to the fullest understanding of nature’s provisions. In other words the Mayans went about as far as they could go within a category of earth and stone technology. 2. Mayans: A member of an American Indian people of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala who had a culture (which reached its peak between AD 300 and 900) characterized by outstanding architecture and pottery and astronomy. 73.
Medieval Colonization: Medieval colonization began with the Crusades and was mainly Italian. The Venetians and Genomes established commercial colonies along trade routes. 74. Medieval Japan: Medieval Japan (1185-1600) with its feudal structures offers a striking contrast to the earlier classical period of Japanese history: warfare and destruction characterize the divided era in which samurai warriors became the rulers of the land. 75. Mediterranean Trade: The early development of seafaring on the Mediterranean Sea facilitated extensive trade relations among peoples separated by great distances.
Trade in the Mediterranean became one of the chief factors in the formation of cultures and in the interaction between cultures, creating cultural change throughout ancient times. 76. Mesopotamia: Mesopotamia is a topknot for the area of the Tigris-Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq and to a lesser extent northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and smaller parts of outstretches Iran. 77. Middle Ages: the period of European history from about a. D. 500 to about 1500 78. Mining Dynasty: Chinese dynasty that provided an interval of native rule between eras of Mongol and Munch dominance.
The imperial dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 79. Mongol Empire: An empire founded in the 12th century by Genesis Khan, which reached its greatest territorial extent in the 13th century, encompassing the larger part of Asia and extending westward to the Dingier River in eastern Europe. 80. Mongol-Christian Diplomacy: This was an alliance with the Mongols and the Europeans against their common foes, the Muslims. The Pope decided to convert the Mongols to Christianity in the sass’s, which failed miserably. The Mongols said that the Christians should surrender, or die.
Ottoman Empire: A former Turkish empire that was founded about 1300 by Osama and reached its greatest territorial extent under Salesman in the 16th century; collapsed after World War l. Capital: Constantinople. 89. Paleolithic Era- Culture: The cultural period of the Stone Age that began about 2. 5 to 2 million years ago, marked by the earliest use of tools made of chipped stone. The Paleolithic Period ended at different times in different parts of the world, generally around 10,000 years ago in Europe and the Middle East. Also called Old Stone Age. 90.
Paleolithic Era- Economy: The economy of a typical Paleolithic society was a hunter-gatherer. 91 . Paleolithic Era- Origins: Of or relating to the cultural period of the Stone Age beginning with the earliest chipped stone tools, about 750,000 years ago, until the beginning of the Megalithic Period, about 15,000 years ago 92. Paleolithic Era- Society: Humans grouped together in small societies such as bands. 93. Patriarchal Societies: A patriarchal society is one whereby men are the decision-makers and hold positions of power and prestige, and have the power to define reality and common tuitions. 4. Persian Wars: The wars fought between Greece and Persia in the 5th century BC, in which the Persians sought to extend their territory over the Greek. And the Greek won, twice. 95. Phoenicians: An ancient maritime country (a collection of city states) at eastern end of the Mediterranean. 96. -Polis: A city-state in ancient Greece. 97. Gin Dynasty: The Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall. 98.
Quark: The sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina. 99. Religious Reform Movements during the Euro: 100. Renaissance: The revival of art and literature under the influence of classical models in the 14th-16th centuries. The culture and style of art and architecture developed during this era. 101. Results of the Crusades: The Christian stance on military service changed radically, the veneration of relics increased radically, and the power of the papacy increased even more dramatically.
Of wider importance was the increased demand for trade goods – Europeans developed a tremendous appetite for cloth, spices, Jewels and more from the Muslims and lands even further east, purring an increased interest in exploration. 102. Roman Empire: The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of ancient Roman civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean in Europe, Africa, and Asia 103.
Roman Expansion: Roman expansion was mostly accomplished under the Republic, though parts of northern Europe were conquered in the 1st century AD, when Roman dominion in Europe, Africa and Asia was strengthened. 104. Roman Law: the legal system of ancient Rome, and the legal developments comprising more than a ottomans years AT Jurisprudence Trot ten Twelve Tables (c. 439 BC) to the Corpus Jurist Civil (AD 529) ordered by the emperor Justinian l. The historical importance of Roman law is reflected by the continued use of Latin legal terminology in legal systems influenced by it. 05. Roman Republic: The Roman Republic was the period of the ancient Roman civilization when the government operated as a republic. 106. Roman Roads: Roman roads were a vital part of the development of the Roman state, from about 500 BC through the expansion during the Roman Republic and the Roman Roman roads enabled the Romans to move armies and trade goods and to communicate 107. Rome- From Republic to Empire: 108. Sang Dynasty: Ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Ixia Dynasty and followed by the Chou Dynasty. 09. Shih Handing: Gin Shih Huh¤nag was the king of the Chinese State of Gin from 246 BC to 221 BC, during the Warring States Period. He became the first emperor off unified China in 221 BC. He ruled until his death in 210 BC at the age of 49. 110. Silk Road: A modern term referring to a historical network of interlinking trade routes across the Afro-Eurasian landmass that connected East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa.
Extending 4,000 miles (6,500 km), the Silk Road gets its name from the lucrative Chinese silk trade along it, which began during the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). 111. Society of Classical Persia: is a society that is either based on, or strongly influenced by the Persian language, culture, literature, art, and/or identity. Does not necessarily designate ethnic Persians, but has also been applied to those societies that may not have been ethnically Persian or Ironic, but whose linguistic, material, or artistic cultural activities ere influenced by, or based on Persistent culture. 112. Sung Dynasty (Technology): A ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. 113. Sparta: Sparta, or Laceration, was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece, situated on the banks of the Reroutes River in Laconic, in south-eastern Peloponnesus. 114. Spread of epidemic diseases: 115. Spread of Epidemic Diseases: Bantu Migrations: 116.
Suffix: Defined by its adherents as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. 117. SSI Dynasty: Was a short-lived Imperial Chinese dynasty. Preceded by the Southern and Northern Dynasties, it unified China for the first time after over a century of north-south division. It was followed by the Tang Dynasty. 118. Tang Dynasty: was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the SSI Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Lie who seized power during the decline and collapse of the SSI Empire. The dynasty was interrupted briefly by the Second Chou Dynasty (October 8, 690 – March 3, 705) when
Empress Www Aztecan seized the throne, becoming the only Chinese empress regnant, ruling in her own right. 119. Discontinuance: Also written Discontinuance is an enormous archaeological site in the Basin of Mexico, Just 30 miles northeast of Mexico City, containing some of the largest pyramidal structures built in the pre-Columbian Americas 120. Looters. Nine looted culture Is an archaeological Noncommercial culture that dominated a state centered in Tulsa, Hidalgo, in the early post-classic period of Micronesian chronology (ca 800-1000 CE). 121. Trade in the Indian Ocean: Indian
Ocean trade served an important role in history, and has been a key factor in East- West exchanges. Long distance trade in dhows and sailboats made it a dynamic zone of interaction between peoples, cultures, and civilizations stretching from Java in the East to Zanzibar and Mambas in the West. 122. Trade in the Mediterranean: The early development of seafaring on the Mediterranean Sea facilitated extensive trade relations among peoples separated by great distances. Trade in the Mediterranean became one of the chief factors in the formation of cultures and in the interaction between cultures, creating cultural change throughout ancient times. 3. Trade with Eastern Hemisphere: Regional trade networks and long-distance trade routes in the Eastern Hemisphere aided the diffusion and exchange of technology and culture. 124. Traditional African Religious Beliefs: a catch-all term for the ethnic and folk religious traditions of the peoples of Africa (especially Sub-Sahara Africa), often involving synthetics with other traditions, especially Christianity and Islam. Due to the vast scope and diversity of Sub-Sahara African ethnography, there is no single uniting aspect of “African religion” beyond what is culturally universal of pre-modern religion worldwide, I. E. Pests of oral tradition and animism. 125. Trans-Sahara Trade: Required travel across the Sahara to reach sub-Sahara Africa from the North African coast, Europe, or the Elevate. 126. Veda: A large body of texts originating in ancient India. 127. Vivid Age: A period in history during which the Veda, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. 128. Warring States: The Warring States period, also known as the Era of Warring States, is a period in ancient China following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the victory of the state of Gin in 221 BC, creating a unified China under the Gin Dynasty. 129.
Yellow River Civilizations – Ixia Dynasty: Ixia Dynasty is the first dynasty to be described. For many years, the Ixia Dynasty was thought to be a part of a myth that the Chinese tell as part of their history. The Ixia Dynasty was in oral histories, but no archaeological evidence was found of it until 1959, which showed that the people were direct ancestors of the Longings and were predecessors of the Sang. 130. Ghent He: Ghent He, formerly Romanizes as Change Ho and also known as Ma Sambas and Hajji Muhammad Shinnied, was a Muslim Hut-Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who commanded voyages to Southeast Asia 131.
Chou Dynasty: a Chinese dynasty that followed the Sang Dynasty and preceded the Gin Dynasty. Although the Chou Dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history, the actual political and military control of China by the J (Chinese: E)family lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as the Western Chou. 132. Zoroastrian: A religion and philosophy based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster (also known as Caruthers, in Vestal) and was formerly among the world’s largest religions. [l] It was probably founded some time before the 6th century BCC in the eastern part of ancient Greater Iran (Persia).