Roman Empire consisted of kings, magistrates, and senators. The king had a big power. He could accept, reject, or overrule senatotors’ decions because he was sen as a God of the earth. In Roman cities, councils transformed city states to central government officals. So urban councils’ functions were seperated two parts. These were civil and military authorities because of centralization. Value of political power and situation of city councilmen diminished with the transformation of authority. The consuls were not the only kings in Roma. Also Roman Empire gave importance to army.
They had very organised army, military and farmer soldiers. The farmer soldiers were given grain and they made it such as porridge and wheat. Because of centralization urban councils in cities of Roman Empire. Central government had to divided to seperate civil and military authority. The Roman Empire, political organization was higly centralized and administration structure of the The Roman Empire had an ecclesiastic property so that the emperor was accepted as the representative of God. The church had a close relationship with the emperor of The Roman Empire because of this belief.
Also christianity became state religion in the beginning period of The Roman Empire. For instace, one of the criterias to be citizen of Roman Empire was belonging to the christian church. The Roman Empire had continued with the Byzantine so major of characteristics of both empires were similar. The Byzantine Empire had city-satates as a heritage from The Roman Empire. The main changes between The Roman Empire and The Byzantine Empire were establishment of the political center and tendency to growing cetralization and reletive compactness of Byzantines’ borders that contrasted with the basic pattern of The Roman Empire.
In The Byzantine Empire, church had a big importance at the political instution of senate, the court, and bureacracy. Also political organization was very centralized and the major pivotal forces of the centrality was the emperor, thebureacracy, the army and the church in Byzantine. They became very strong and a part of Byzantine’s forces at centrality. Also in The Byzantine Empire, the army had merchants were in the form of travelling they did not stay in Byzantine. Additionaly, senates of The Byzantine Empire behave as counselor of the emperor and very similar to the Roman senate.
Monarcy was divine justice. The Byzantine Empire had an eccesiastic administration structure. Elements of ecclesiastic administration were metropolitanetes, archbishoprics, bishoprics, monastries in the country side. The Byzantine Empire had very centralized political organization. So emperor, chuch, army, and bureacracy were focal elemnts of the centrality. In the early 1th century, The Turks conquered most of Anatolia and established The Anatolian Seljuk state as a part of great The Great Seljuk Empire, which is the first Turkish Empire in Anatolia.
The Seljuk Empire was an islamic empire and feudal. State was the common property of dynasty, like in the Byzantine. When The Seljuk Empire s sultan died, the son of sultan was taking place of his father. This situation caused quarrels and rebellion of sultan sons. For the administrative structure of the Seljuk society,the sultan was the first and most important power because the whole populaton was under the control of central authority which was the sultans own. However there were other high level administractors except the sultan although he was the only owner of The Seljuk Empire.
Moreover, the army was belonging to the sultan. The army of SeljukEmpire included five main groups: Kapykulu askerleri, tymarly sipahiler, cretli askerler, muhafyz birlikleri, uc beylikleri. To sum up, christianity began to lose importance in Anatolia when The Byzantin Empire collapsed. Then, in Anatolia began to spread islamization. Islamization affected the al urban development such as social structure and street patterns. In islamic civilizations, city administration was in the control of officals determined by the emperor, there were very close relation between them.