History Study Guide
Globalization I September 5, 13 From Western Civilization to Global History Why study history? Orientation – why do we…? How did we get here? Analysis – avoiding past mistakes (ex: appeasement), Edmund Burke, “Those who don’t know history are doomed to repeat it. ” “The only thing we learn from history is that we learn nothing from history. ” Identification – pride in historical achievements, values Entertainment purposes What to study?
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Histories of nations – cant forget about nations even though they are becoming less and less studied Histories of events – reformation, relation with church, wars Histories of previously neglected people – years ago most historians only looked at elite because there were only books on them available. Only recently (1960s-1970s) working class became a popular study. Women’s history (1970s-19080s) Western Civilization (aka from Plato to NATO) – Why were these studied??
Development of monotheism – American society was mostly a Christian nation Ancient Greece – Athens as cradle of Democracy, which was vital for United States. Where Democracy began. Every educated person should be familiar with Plato. Ancient Rome – political organization of Roman Republic, senators, system of checks and balances. Parallels to American government. Origins and early development of Christianity – initial persecution, turns into success story, people get religious freedom. The Middle Ages – “Dark Ages” crusades contribute to a common European unity identity.
Examples of how periods/names historians come up with to define/ break up events in history. The Renaissance – period of enormous cultural flourishing. Also politically, Machiavelli, one of the founders of political science, how do your rule how do you keep your enemies at bay. The Reformation – good thing corrupt church full of people who abuse power were overthrown. This was a popular tudy in the 1900s because the nation was largely protestant/religious. This is a striking example to a very bias approach to history.
The scientific revolution – major ex: of scientific progress of modernity, European superiority to the rest of the world The glorious revolution (England) – ex: of political development leading closer to democracy in Europe American independence The French revolution – European break through of democracy, but also an example of the dangers of democracy, and example also maybe of Europeans don’t know how to do things, they are too radical, lesson to be learned better to have a slower tract hen a violent fast one. They only calm down once Napoleon takes over which shows Americans they are superior and more capable, they don’t need a king.
Nationalism America rising as a world power, isolationism is given up, strong political component The cold war – need to understand why America spent so many resources in Europe, communism against democracy Rene Descartes – Scientific Revolution History of the “Western CM’ Course – Western Civ and higher education – emergence in late 19th century – reminding Americans of their Christian/protestant identities. – impact of world war I – end of American isolationism peak around/after world war II 0 influence of cold war – arms race, political and military AND intellectual conflict.
Christian west vs totalitarian communism. Remind students why the west was something worth fighting for. – decline of western civ since the 1960s -impact of decolonization – lets stop teaching this idea of European superiority – emerging doubts about human progress, critique of enlightenment and modernity. 0 nuclear arms race (1960s), development of nuclear weapons, after Cuban missile crisis, the realization that we made weapons to kill each other. Even if we go back to orld war II, Germany a once civilized nation was able to mass murder so many people.
This brought a change in western civ to stop teaching European history as good and the course disappeared for a while. In some cases the western civ course got replaced by a world history course or a western civ course that paid attention to more negative aspects. Correcting the “Western bias” New global history course: Emphasized interactions between societies Avoiding using the western standard to Judge European views. Comparisons. The past as “a foreign country – if you want to understand the past you have to nderstand its value The past as a dynamic process – meaning interpretations are evolving.
History writing is not something that is written and then never changed. As years past, historians add to it. Ex: world war I as years went by was interpretated more and more. Our Approach to history: Choices and alternatives – for something to happen several things had to come together. Multiple causality: political, social, cultural/intellectual Structure and event Historical contexts and individuals PREFACE: Christian Europe and the Crusades: High politics – rise of centralized city-states and the rise of the catholic church.
Often found themselves in competition with each other. The crusades – Sign of confidence Religious beliefs Political dimensions Long term consequence of how European people see other peoples different from them Feudalism and the Rise of the states: France, England, Germany Kings gave out laws that displaced existing ones. Made bureaucracies and gradually displaced church Feudalism – mutual political and military relationship between lords and vassels (knights). Three estates – those who fought, those who pray, those who worked.
Feudalism arose due to the instability of the fall of Charlemagne’s mpire (don’t need to know) -In mid 19th century, invaders began invading and brutalizing the population. -Because monasteries fell victim as well intellectualism suffered. -The kings could not mount an effective defense against invaders. They became only kings in name as their armies dwindled. Since they could not provide defense, local land owners began establishing defense and their own law order. – peasants who saw their land/fleld destroyed sought refuge from local authorities.
In return they had to pay taxes, give some livestock, and some food. This brought about he system in which peasants received land and benefits from lord in return for their money and food. -historians say that this paved the way to centralized/strong states (esp France and England who get stronger later on) MIDTERM MATERIAL: don’t need to remember kings names England: -extending royal authority Gave royal state increasing control of government. English kings established branches of court in counties and sent out Judges to oversee them.
Most important cases went to them. (common law based on precedence. ) wanted to subordinate the catholic church henry II required that clergy be tried in royal courts and had to follow laws. Archbishop and king conflict led to murder of the archbishop – pope excommunicated Henry II. So he had to back down in order to gain back religious authority that he lost and promise to go on a crusade which he didn’t. magna carta – principle of representation, for the first time we see developments of parliament. arta this did not stop him Happier people make a more centralized state France in the 12th century – Henry VI had captured most of northern france from the king of England. – French kings began issuing laws without consulting their vassels. – process of centralization ould continue for centuries but not in linear trend – French kings were expanding their power at the expense of the feudal nobility and later on as the church as well ** in France there were fewer checks on the monarchy ( no monarchy) Holy Roman Empire, ca. 200 trend toward fragmentation unlike England and France title bestowed by pope during rule of Charlemagne lesser nobles, dukes, counts, expanded their own power in their feudal realms so that by the end of the middle ages they had established mini kingdoms in the realm. So even though they technically ruled under the emperor they ruled independently in ach state. Political influence of church in England declines while in the holy roman empire remained strong. Allied itself with lords in order to undermine emperor. By the early 13th century the pope gained the status equivalent to a monarchy.
Gregory VII (most important church reformer) trying to clean up corruption inside church and tried to establish the supremacy of the papacy over all the bishops, priests, and church doctrine. He was interested more in Just strengthening the papacy of the church. He thought the papacy was higher than kings. Lay investiture – kings ability o appoint church peoples, Gregory tried to end this which led him to conflict with emperor, known as the investiture conflict The emperor refused to accept his order and called on Gregory to vacate his position as pope.
When Henry IV was excommunicated by Gregory VII he lost a lot of his authority which gave German princes reason to rebel against him. Therefore, Henry had to give in to pope to avoid this. This conflict between the papacy and holy roman emperor would continue in conflict. This shows how much influence papacy had over monarchy. Long term structural reason for lack of unified nation states (Germany, France, England) The Crusades: Christian attempts to recapture holy land from Muslims First sign of Christian unification in world Represented the growing optimism in Europe compared to how unstable it was in the start.
Revival of popular piety, people were more enthusiastic about Christianity and looked for more ways to express themselves religiously. German knights were expanding their Christian influence to the east and the Baltic By launching crusades pope thought they could enter into alliance with kings by channeling these negative relations outward, unifying with the king, then taking over authority eventually. Kings/ lords may have been looking for an outlet to channel their fighting Seljuk turks had emerged as a new power and were putting a political strain on Europe.
Pope urban II First crusade failed miserably, took two years (France and Germany), to win back Jerusalem. Stayed unified and set up crusader states Second Crusade (1140s) 1147 specifically saw European kings get more involved to avoid letting pope undermine their executive position like in the first crusade. Third crusade (1189) – Fourth crusade (12040 – crusaders ended up attacking Constantinople instead (never reach holy land) nofficial and official crusades aimed at internal order. Ex: Germany – slaughtered Jews in Germany which initiated new violent outlook. 189-1267 – Jews forced to flee or be killed also in 12th and 13th century beginning of anti-Semitism feelings supported by government. Church advocated violence against heretics France alabgeniens – rejected church, did not preach in latin, popular among the poor, advocated a more simple life and rejected materialistic values of church. After some attempts to make them change their mind the pope advocated for them to be killed as were thousands. september 12, 2013 The crusades legacy ) expanded Europe’s horizons, b/c exposure sophisticated Islam, brought back lost texts, and contributed to renaissance. ) expansion of papal power, as well as secular power 3) brought about unified sense of European Christian identity, (for muslims invading crusaders were seen as political threat not a religious one) 4) constructed identity of others Oews, muslims) point of view of muslims: 5) altered Muslim perception of Christian Europeans. 6) Helped foster a certain sense of European superiority over other cultures and different people from them. Ex: Charlemagne still had respect for other cultures, but uch respect became less popular during the crusades.
Ex: Christian anti- Semitism Changing perspectives of crusades, (term crusades used for later use such as cold war): 7) far from being organized, they were messy 8) people who weren’t originally targeted often fell victim to the violence in late middle ages, after crusades, everyone in Christianity believed the crusades was God sent/meant when protecting against Turks 0 forced Europeans to put aside not Just claiming Jerusalem, but expanding in general (16th century) 16th century Protestant Reformation rejected some of the documents that were central to the rusades, such as the secular ambitions of the pope, doctrine of indulgence for crusade fighters, martin luther claimed these tools as a corrupt papacy. In English, a churchman wrote the first history of the war and criticized them. (Holy War 1639) threat to Europe had been averted, so now crusades and passions that came with it seemed too strange to Europeans Philosophers denounced the crusades as a bloody sensation. Strong critics. Early 19th century – grammaticism arises, some embraced the chivalry, piety of medieval knights who got engaged in the crusades. Historians riticized these philosopher like volter for Judging medieval events with their 19th century views.
World war I – propaganda used image of knight taking arm in Europe against their enemies (history of use and abuse of crusades in early modern Europe) 20th century discovery of new sources made possible new outlook, arguments that crusades were not a result of what was occurring in the east, but the reform movement in which Europe let go of the individual to embrace the secular, political papacy. Rise of Nazi Germany – Europeans began to see the crusades Just like their enlightened predecessors, stopped understanding crusades on their own terms The Mongol transformation of Afro-Eurasia Terms: Pastoral nomadism, Chinggis Khan, Yuan Dynasty Memory of the Mongol Empire – Chinggis Khan lost his soul in the 1930s, Mongolia was under communist rules (influenced by Stalin) communist regime destroyed many monasteries and executed monks and destroyed his spirit banner housed there, therefore losing his soul. However, years later his name still is popular and named after him.
Eurasian Paths to Power: Organized mobility pastoral nomadism (people who migrated in established territory with livestock they take with them, in need of finding pastures for their animals. Carried animals: cattle, goats, camels, sheep, horses, and trades) basic goods and the appeal of other products management of people basic unit were families and tribes families allied themselves into tribes, all members came from one ancestor but they were open to new memebers. When a chief or a khan died, several people usually contended to become his successor, (included their sons and members of extended family, so not Just the first born son, they had to struggle and fight for succession). orms of allegiance regulating succession Charisma and religion – they were not restrained with religious authorities Army and obilization – warriors fought in units of 10, which were combined in 100 thousands, chinggis khan broke up travel units from different tribes and mixed them up, in order to create a larger identity surpassing the tribe) military training was provided early in life through hunting Making Empires, Mongol-style his family was deserted by their clan. His teenage years were an ex. of overcoming these struggles. In 1190s, he was already elected khan by several leaders. It would take another 15 years until he outmaneuvered his rivals. * in 1206 he became Chinggis Khan – meaning he was distinguishing himself from other leaders. He adhered to mongol traditions, but would break them if necessary After 1210, turned his attention to northern china, then moved to west for central Asia and Iran, if the leaders did not submit then their were executed and their wives and children taken.
Conquests Mongol core Northern china Central Asia/lran – did not go into India Limits Means of subjugation Pax Mongolica successor – Ogodei Khan Pope wrote letter to Khan urging him to end his conquests, but Khan was unimpressed conquests, part II terror and diplomacy four dynasties emereged golden horde/kipchak khanate Chinghai khantae il khans yuan dynasty n order to control empire, showed tolerance to religion, science, and only required political allegiance. Registration essential for taxing their population effectively. In order to do this they needed local intermediaries which allowed option of insubordination so the Mongols only allowed soldiers to be Mongols while civilians could take these office positions. Long distance trade across Eurasia (Mongol connection stretched from pacific to Mediterranean in the Baltic – allowed transmission of trade, ideas, diseases) Were generous in financing cultural and scientific endeavors such as mapmaking. eptember 17, 2013 Mongol Way: reliance on/control of local intermediaries – registration/taxation – The Mongols and religious difference 0 indifferent, pragmatic, allowed religious freedom – emphasis on long-distance trade – access to different medical systems empire lasted only a few decades Mongol power depended on awarding resources to warriors Mongols struggled to rule their vast empires; better at conquering than governing But by bit they ceded control to local administrators and dynasts who governed as their surrogates. Meltdown and Legacy expansion as necessity 1st collapse in the 14th century (II-Khansffuan Dynasty) 0 II Khans tried to counter lliance of Gordon Horde and Egypt but fell apart. Peasants, rebels in south. 368 – fall of Yuan and rise of Ming Dynasty Collapse in the 15th century (Golden Horde/ Chagatai) Ambitious leaders broke away and allied themselves with military Turks and attacked the Horde. Broke apart into separate units. Chagatai broke into two separate parts; areas were alliance making were preserved. Note – European monarchs paid attention to events of 1402 and congratulated Tamerlane. Mutual awareness for the Ottomans. 1405 – after the victory of the Ottomans Tamerlane died, and since his mpire was based on personal authority of ruler, once ruler was gone it turned out to be impossible to mobilize followers/warriors like Tamerlane could.
Features that persisted long after the Mongol empire was gone: Mongol governing practice based on recognize ethnic difference Cultivation of personalized loyalty Religious freedom Alliance, pragmatic subordination Trade routes established by Mongols spread diseases 0 Ottomans, Ming Chinese, Mughal Empire (India) The Black Death 1300-1500: crises and recovery, crusades brought people closer together and increased awareness of other territories economic decline and climatic changes he black death – population densities did not recover for about 200 years social, economic, and political consequences – people all over the world were less likely to accept hierarchy than before. So if religious institutions survived they did so with modified forms. Psychological crisis Agriculture system had a hard time provided enough food, soil and erosion problems, leading to shortage of food and raised prices for food. People had less money to spend and trade began to decline. Little Ice Age” got cold in Europe for a certain number of years. It bagan to rain very heavily for years and ruined crops. Now Europe had even less food. (131 5-1322) carried to Europe on fleas which were on rats who made their way onto merchant trade ships. Symptoms of plague: intense fever, swelling, lymph nodes – bubos After infection, black spots appeared on the skin, 50-75% chance of dying within 3-5 days. 1348 – 20 million people died, entire towns and villages wiped out. Affected not only Europe but also China (120 million down to 80 million) black death affected social, cultural, and literary life Effects/Reactions: Italian city of Pistolia the city government set up quarantine.
Improved sanitation Religious reactions – held more religious services After it was over, so many people died that peasants had more bargaining power. Feudal lords had tried to restore their power by freezing wages which had gone up very high initially. They also increased rent. Peasants were not happy and revolted. Ex: of willingness of people to respect authority John Ball – unfair for wealthy to oppress the poor, Also had effects on education, as disease receded new colleges and universities were built partly to satisfy local donors and also to educate new generation. Psychological crisis: Surviving elites began investing in authority. Law and order collapsed in many places
Everyone lives in constant fear in death People began looking for something new to believe in (church offered them no protection) 0 rise in mysticism, religious extremists (flagellants) – march to villages, half naked, whipping themselves, proclaimed the end of the world was near people became obsessed with death, skeleton image was popular e: danse macabre – dance of the dead people looked for scapegoats 0 found them among the Jews, polgoms took place as assault on Jews ex: Jews of cologne – accused of starting the plague church urged Jewish acceptance because their conversion would be vital later n since 1 lth century, Jewish people had been ousted by Christians from their land and crops, by 12th century Christians were banned from handling money so this fell to the Jews who could find no other Jobs. Many Jews fled to eastern Europe. Witches were also targeted scapegoats. usually women with red hair) were burned at the stake. September 19, 13 Mughals: -Muslim rulers motivated by general piety, or enlightened self-interest (to make subjects happy which will ultimately benefit the ruler), or a mix of both. Therefore, did not stereotype based on religion. – goals: security, prosperity, and survival of their lineages. preserving their territory – this angered some subjects because they thought this practice did not include religious law -many of the ottomans were very conscience of the pre-lslamic traditions meaning: Ottoman Empire included Christian population of various denominations and welcomed Jews who were expelled elsewhere.
Numerically more Christian empire than Muslim Western Perspective with Ottoman Empire: Often threatened Europe and became an important place in European politics Twice they laid siege to Vienna “Turkish Danger” – 16th &17th centuries- still used by politicians to warn against Turkish immigration today. 9th century – profound ship in global powers 0 1780-1790 ottoman empire were still powerful but by 1800’s the Chinese and Turks were falling apart. “Sick Man of Europe” Rise of the Ottomans – culminated 1453 (end of hundreds years war between England and France) they conquered Constantinople -1453 How were the ottomans in position to attack Constantinople? Ottomans were Turks originally from central Asia between Mongol and Byzantine Empire “Ottoman” comes from Ozman I who was Sultan.
By the 1520s, he had defeated the small Byzantine army and occupied many Byzantine fortresses. 1364 – Christians in Europe become aware of Turks rising. First Hungarian Christian army was defeated by Muslims People got riled up but only led to small battles 0 crusade fervor 1402 – last Mongol conqueror Temur defeated the Ottomans (sultan died in captivity) 1402- French and English King congratulated Termalane on his victory 0 they had been aware of the Ottoman threat Historians argue that it was this uneven course of Empire building that gave the Ottoman rulers and their advisors a chance to reflect on their experiences and from other battles, which made them last a long time ruling. 451 coronation 0 promised to capture Constantinople would be strategic and important due to its history with he byzantine empire Ottoman Beginnings: – Memet the II, saw conquer of Constantinople as himself as the successor of the empire. – European response to fall of Constantinople: Europeans were shocked but ultimately reactions were negligible. Venice 0 didn’t wish to cancel treaty with Ottomans (trade) 1453 – the Pope tries to get support for a crusade to start but the people don’t do anything 0 shows how influence of papacy on secular Europe has significantly declined (compared to earlier crusades when people including European government listened to the church) In early 1400s Ottomans advanced in Europe Reasons to Ottoman success