II. The decline of the Ghaznavids and rise of the Seljuk empire, 1040-1200 it was a new dynasty that was no longer run by a caliphate or family member of a religious background it was run by the sultan. The relationship of the sultan and the caliph relationship started when the Turks entered Islam. The caliphate, was replaced by a new institution the sultan. The Turks were brought in to fight in the military by them either being slaves or adventurers. Through their service they became excellent soldiers and rose to become sultans or other powerful positions.
The Iqta military land holding system is that the oldiers who were fighting in exchange would receive land holdings. The soldiers received land that was seized or uncultivated. This way the revenue was still in the sultan or caliphs’ hands. The military was assigned to a specific task that is under bureaucratic control. Nizam al- Mulk had to integrate them into the bureaucratic system so that the organization would not weaken. The Madrasa system of Nizam al-Mulk and the Sunni struggle against the Shi’i agents was propaganda undermining Sunni Islam.
The Madrasa was a symbol of power and a way for the caliph to transfer capital and status to their escendants. Alps Arslan could fill his army and not worry about paying them a tribute and his biggest strength was his military realm. His victory at Manzikert proved to the Sejuks who kept on coming that he was swift and his army was well trained. It also, proved that the Byzantine Empire was not indestructible. The Seljuk imperial decline and collapsed of the empire happened in part to the death of Alp Arslans son Malik Shah.
The invasions of the borders with the west being raided by the Crusaders, the East with the Mongols, and the South by the Arabs. The leaders who were too busy arguing and fighting for he power to run the empire that led to their demise. IIII. The rise of the Ayyubid dynasty from the fragmented Seljuk system was because of the Crusaders and they managed to cut off Egypt and Syria from the capture of Ascalon and the Fatimid caliph. The reason it weakened was because of the amateurish and youthful caliphs was taking a toll on the dynasty.
The Fatimid’s were not paying tributes and the campaign against Egypt was led by the king of Jerusalem. Then the campaign failed so Nur-ad Din lead a campaign against the crusaders in Syria which allowed an open attack on Tripoli. Then the displaced Shawar needed help to fight and begged for an army to come to his aid. Nur- ad Din decided to help and send his Kurdish general Shirkuh and then Shawar was restored with the help of the army. The crusaders were moving forward and they were seeking the support of Emperor Manuel and invaded Egypt again it was Shirkuh and Nur- ad Din who forced them out of there.
Egypt was no longer was now controlled by Nur- ad Din. Shirkuh was named vizier and his nephew named Saladin, later succeeded him. Saladin claimed control over Syria in 1185 and founded the Ayyubid dynasty. The Turkish Mamluks were urchased as military slaves but they were a rank above a slave. Saladin with his military proficiency gained Egypt, Syria, and norther Mesopotamia, Hejaz, Yemen, and the North African coast up along borders of modern Tunisia. Saladin was successful at the battle of Hittin and with defeating the crusaders army.
The crusaders kept on trying to attack the Ayyubids but they were unsuccessful with him Muslim army that killed a lot of the crusaders and reigned over the holy land. Shararat al Durr, she was a widow of the late Ayyubid al Salih who was originally a slave. When her husband died, she ran as a ole sovereign, for eighty days and there were coins made with her name on them. She was mentioned in Friday prayers. She was a member of the al Salih and she became a free slave when she borne him a son.
When the new sultan was chosen by the amirs, she married Izz-al Din Aybak who later had the intention of marrying somebody else had him killed. Part B: 1. The mystic movement in Islam, from Rabi’a al- Adawiyya to al- Ghazali: Rabi’a al Adawiyya was from al- Basrah and she was a mystical woman who of noble life and a lovely character who was first in line to be considered a saint. Since then Rabi’a al- Adawiyyah has become “the saint par excellence of the Sunnite hagiology” (Hitti 439). She was a slave at one time and would pray for her freedom and never married.
She chose to live a life of extreme strictness and other- worldliness. She was a well- regarded guide who volunteered and instilled the guidance to patience and gratitude with the idea of holy fear. Al – Ghazali was an orthodox at a young age and later he converted to Sufism. Sufism is the practice which mystical that has taken in Islam. Sufism founded and popularized the cult of sainthood. 2. The development of Islamic law the (Shari ‘a) and the Muslim society was a divine law that governs the Muslims that are members of the Islamic devotion and it is based on the Quran and the Hadith.
The Shari’ rule is grounded in the belief of the prophecy and the spiritual prophecy. It is the infallible bylaw of God. During the Umayyad rule, the intellectuals were banned from the administrative duties and these were the scholars of Islam. Shari’s law was supposed be a law for the Muslims, but ne of the judges did not enforce the law and it wasn’t until later when the Abbasid’s started their dynasty. The Abbasids ade the institution of the judges who were independent from the government.
The Shari law was a guidance for the Muslims some to follow and it was a law for their behaviors. . This was a period of transition from science and philosophy and assimilated the ancient wisdom of Persia and the Greek heritage. In science and philosophy, it was less conspicuous and allowed the Arabs a new way of thinking. Al- Kindi, Abu- Yusuf Ya qub ibn Ishaq was a wholesome Arabian decent who lived in Baghdad and died around 873. “It was his pure Arabian descent earned him the title “the philosopher of the Arabs”, and indeed e was the first and last example of an Aristotelian student in the Eastern caliphate who sprang from Arabian stock” (Hitti 370).
Al- Kindi was more than a philosopher, he was an astrologer, alchemist, optician, and a music theorist. Al- Kindi was the man who could combine the harmony of the Greek philosophy with Islam. Al – Farabi was a Turk and these two men are considered the two greatest names in the field of early Arab philosophy. Al Farabi was inspired by the works of Aristotle and Plato. “He became known as the “second teacher,” that is, second only to Aristotle” (the great thinker).
Al- Farabi was educated by a Christian doctor and a Christian translator in the city of Baghdad and it was the city where he flourished as a Sufi. Al-Farabi is one of the greatest intellects that Islam ever produced in part of the field of philosophic Sufism and in the Arabic- writing world. Al- Farabi composed a lot of various commentaries on the psychological, political, and some metaphysical works and the best known are the Risala Fusus al- Hikam. Al- Farabi was inspired by Plato and Aristotle and the idea that there is a hierarchical organism analogous to the human body.