The AP European History: Study Notes
FRQ 16 After World War II, the continent of Europe was left in socioeconomic and political disarray. A devastated Europe was divided between Eastern and Western nations with distinct differences until the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. Social and political differences polarized Europe from 1945 to 2001 whilst the desire for economic prosperity united the countries of Europe. Social Differences Preserving the unique history and cultural differences of European nations presented itself as a roadblock to early European cooperation. ??Long standing rivalries/histories ???Nationalism (France 1960s DeGaulle withdrawal from NATO) ??Class/Wealth/Ethnic distinctions between Nations Political Differences Political disagreements between Europe’s leaders lead to an impasse in early European cooperation. ???Concerns over Sovereignty/ Central Power over Europe/ Central Bank Currency Pound versus Euro (Maastricht Treaty) ???’Eureaucrats”/ Brussels ???East versus West/ NATO versus Warsaw-1989 Economic Unity The desire for Economic prosperity was the ultimate cause for the creation of the European Union. ??Single European Act of 1986- laid down a legal framework for free movement of labor, capital and services ??European Community-1993 European Union (ELI)/ Maastricht treaty- single currency (Euro) ???Globalization FRQ 2 Metternich, Foreign Minister of Austria from 1815-1848, and Bismarck of Prussia from 1862-1890, were the same in their foreign policy goals with their conservative beliefs that the ideas of liberalism and revolution must be crushed, however Metternich often engaged in war while Bismarck only participated in war if completely necessary.
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Bismarck may have started with more liberal views but became an extreme conservative, to the extent that he had to find a way to appeal to the liberal Parliament in 1863. Although he supported a strong monarchy he managed to unite Germany and worked for nineteen years to conserve the peace in Germany. Metternich, on the other hand, was always a conservative who wanted Austria to dominate the German Confederation and influence Europe. Metternich also abolished the Burschenschaften and passed the Final Act.
Metternich: -Big symbol of conservatism in the first half of the 19th century -Foreign Minister of Austria -Played a crucial role at the congress of Vienna: guided by the principle of legitimacrto restore peace and order in Europe it is ecessary to restore the legitimate monarchs who would preserve traditional institutions New arrangement of territory: Metternich believes it to have avoided great danger by creating a balance of power -To maintain the new conservative order after 181 5, he espoused the principle of intervention, by which he meant that the great powers had the right to intervene militarily in other countries in order to crush revolutionary movements against legitimate rulers -Used spies to search and crush liberal or nationalist plots -Metternich only postponed an revolutionary explosion ntil 1848 with his realization that forces of liberalism and nationalism threatened to tear the empire apart -Had the Karlsbad Decrees of 1819 drawn up which closed the Burschenschaften (which were student societies dedicated to fostering the goal of of free, united Germany), provided for censorship of the press, and placed the universities under close supervision and control ??? This helped Metternich and the cooperative German rulers maintain the conservative status quo Bismarck: -waged war only when all other diplomatic alternatives had been exhausted and when he was he was reasonably sure that all the military and diplomatic advantages ere on his side Was a defender of peace because he believed that the advantages won from war “no longer Justifies the risks involved” -foremost specialist of Realpolitik: the politics of reality -blamed liberals for the breakdown of the constitutions government of Prussia -In the three wars he waged, Bismarck’s victories were Just as much diplomatic and political as they were militarily Danish War (1864) – Bismarck realizes that in order for Prusssia to expand its power, Austria would have to be excluded from German affairs Austro-Prussian War (1866) -bismark is able to 0-1871)