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Essay on German Dual Alliance

Chapter 1 Question 1: What did Prince Otto von Bismarck, the German chancellor, see as the task of German Foreign policy? The German Chancellor, Prince Otto Von Bismarck saw the German foreign policy, which is a governments strategy with dealing with other nations, as the diplomatic isolation of France. his depiction of Germanys strategy saw that it was impossible for France to get their revenge in such isolation. Bismarck sought to deny France of any possible allies they could get in order to stop them from getting their revenge, as allies were the only way that France could succeed.

Question 2: list five great powers which dominated Europe in the late nineteenth centaury? In the late Nineteenth century Europe was dominated by five great powers which consisted of Germany, France, Britain, Austria-Hungary and Russia. Out of these 5 great powers Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia joined as allies. Question 3: Which nations formed the 3 emperors league in 1873? the nations that were involved in the 3 emperors league consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia. each of these nations agreed to consult each other on matters of international importance and remain neutral if any nation should attack (e. France).

Question 4: What two aspects of the territorial settlement achieved at the Congress of Berlin were of particular importance? The first was that Serbia was established as an independent state and former Turkish territories of Bosnia and the second was that Hercegovina were handed over to Austria Hungary to manage and be responsible for. Question 5: Which nations formed the dual Alliance? In what year was the alliance formed? The dual alliance was formed in the year 1879. The German chancellor Otto von Bismarck was responsible for forming the alliance as he strove to form stronger links with Austria-Hungary.

The secret treaty stated that both nations would agree to help each other if attacked by Russia but that they would remain neutral if there was an attack on another power such as France. Question 6: Which nation joined the dual alliance in 1882 and transformed it into a triple alliance? In 1882 the dual alliance was expanded as Italy joined making it the triple alliance. Italy joined after coming into conflict with France over North American territories. Under the terms of the triple alliance Germany and Austria-Hungary agreed to aid Italy if attacked by France.

Italy also agreed to go to war with the other two nations if attacked by an enemy power. Question 7: In what year was the Reinsurance Treaty signed? which nations signed it? The Reinsurance Treaty of June 18, 1887 was an attempt by German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck to continue to ally with Russia after the League of the Three Emperors had broken down in the aftermath of the 1885 SerboBulgarian War. The treaty was signed as a secret Germany and Russia. Question 8: What was the object of Reinsurance from Bismarck’s point of view?

The Reinsurance from Bismarck’s point of view was to keep Russia allied with Germany. Under the terms of this treaty each powers assured help if either were attacked by another country. Question 9: Name the German emperor who abandoned the Reinsurance treaty in 1890 and who began to change Bismarck’s alliance system? The name of the German Emperor who abandoned the Reinsurance treaty in 1890 was emperor (Kaiser) William 11. William had done this as he wanted to instate his own foreign policy. As he became the Kaiser he quickly got rid of Bismarck as chancellor.

Question 10: Why did the new German Emperor and his chancellor refuse to renew the Reinsurance treaty? Because William 11 wanted to estate his own foreign policy. The refusal was done in order to simplify Bismarck’s complex and contradictory treaty. Question 11: which two nations formed the dual entente? In which year did these nations sign a military convention and became ‘allies’. After Germanys refusal to renew the Reinsurance treaty Russia responded by joining with France in 1891 as they agreed to consult each other in the event of threat to European peace.

IN January 1894 Russia and France signed a military convention, which was drew up in 1892, and became allies. They were known as the dual Entente. Question 12: What German polices destroyed the prospect of an alliance between Britain and Germany? The German decision in 1896 to build a battle fleet of a size that would threaten British navel superiority, destroyed the prospect of a British Alliance with Germany. Question 13: Which nations formed the Entente Cordiale? In what year was the entente formed? n 1904 both Britain and France signed and agreement which settled all outstanding colonial differences between the two countries. the settlement was known as the Entente Cordiale.

Question 14: How was the Entente Cordiale transformed into the Triple entente? A similar treaty to the entente cordiale was signed by Britain and Russia in 1907. Both Britain’s 1904 settlement with Russia and their 1907 settlement with France established a linkage between the 3 powers forming the triple entente. Question 15: In what way was Bismarck diplomacy reversed between 1890 and 1907?

Bismarcks was reversed between 1890 and 1907 as France and Russia, which were nations that had been in dispute with Britain settled their differences and joined into an anti-German alliance meaning that Bismarck’s diplomacy could not be successful. Chapter 2 Question 1: what area of the world were the centre of tension between France Germany, and Austria-Hungary and Russia? the area of tension were Morocco in North Africa Where France and Germany were in dispute and also the Balkans which were located on the south-eastern edge of Europe. The Balkans was the area where Austria-Hungary and Russia had been conflicting

Question 2: who visited Morocco in 1905 and triggered the first Moroccan crisis? in 1905 the Kaiser or Chancellor of Germany (Otto Von Bismarck) visited Morocco and at the port of Tangier declared his support for Moroccan independence. Question 3: What were the German motives for intervention in Morocco in 1905? The Germans motives for intervention in Morocco in 1905 was to demand an international conference to settle the question of Morocco’s status. Question 4: List the nations which supported the French position in Morocco at the Algeciras conference in 1906?

France was supported by Britain, Russia, Spain, Italy and the USA at the Algeciras conference in 1906. Question 5: What effects did the Moroccan crisis of 1905 have on the Entente Cordiale? The Moroccan crisis of 1905 had a positive effect of the Entente Cordiale, being that it strengthened it as the crisis hardened the british attitude towards Germany. British and French generals started discussion on how to fight Germany in a European war. Question 6: What action by Germany triggered the second Moroccan crisis in 1911? Germany sent a gunboat called the panther to the moroccan port Agadir.

Seen as an over reactions to the rest of europe by the Germans, alarm was sent through europe. Question 7: What was the significance of the second Moroccan crisis of 1911? the significances of the second Moroccan crisis of 1911 was the heightened tension between the great powers, also Britain’s decision to act firmly to resist German expansionist policy. Question 8: Which empire was in collapse in the Balkan region, allowing Austria-Hungary and Russia to compete for influence and advantage? the empire that was in collapse was the Ottoman (Turkish) empire.

The collapse of the Turkish power left Turkish Balkan territory vulnerable. This empire was the empire in which Austria-Hungary and Russia competed for influence and advantage. Question 9: Why was Austria-Hungary interested in the Balkans? Why was Russia interested in the Balkans? Austria-Hungary was interested in the Balkans as an area which might recover its well respected look and territory lost by the unification of Germany and Italy. Question 10: Name the turkish provinces in the Balkans annexed by Austria-Hungary in 1908, causing an international crisis?

It was named the provinces of Bosnia and Hercegovina which they had administered since the congress of Berlin 1878. This occurred October 1908. The foreign minister of AustriaHungary made a deal to take what each wanted in the Balkans Question 11: What were the effects of the Bosnian crisis of 1908? The crisis of 1908 made the Entente powers suspicious of German ambition and further cemented the Entente alliance by making Russia even more dependent on French and British support than before. Another effect was that there was an antiAustrian coalition formed in the Balkans

Question 12: Which nations formed the Balkan league in 1912? The nations that formed the Balkan league in 1912 included Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro. The leagues members attacked Turkish forces in the Balkans and drove them back to the Dardanelles Straits. Question 13: The crisis of 1912-13 was caused by conflict between Austria-Hungary and over the rights of a Balkan country. Name the country whose rights were at the centre of the dispute? The country whose rights were at the centre of the dispute was Serbia.

Question 14: How was the Balkan crisis of 1912-13 resolved? Bulgaria attacked its allies in Serbia and Greece, in a squabble over the spoils. In consequence Bulgaria was defeated in conflict which followed in loss of what they had gained. Question 15: What were the effects of the Balkan crisis of 1912-13 on European diplomacy? Austria-Hungary and Russia condemned their allies for not backing them up in the Balkans this made the partners of their alliance fearful of loosing support. Where as Britain France and Germany had all kept their heads.

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