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History Notes on the 19th Century

History Notes on the 19th Century Nationalism- fanatical devotion to “nation’s” commonalities Imperialism- one nation dominates another Industrialism- mass production of technology to be more effective Capitalism- competition (between nations) to eradicate; all for profit Militarism- utilize military as 1st choice; spirit De corps Scientific- reasoning and Justifications; technology Social Darwinism- “survival of the fittest”; why you take place in other “isms”- hierarchy cinema war (1854-1856): First major power conflict in 40 years acted as the birth of modern warfare Britain,

France, Turkey, and Austria VS.. Russia- Russia lost to an alliance of France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire, and (to a lesser extent) the Piedmont-Sardinia (The Kingdom of Sardinia). Austria, while neutral, played a role in stopping the Russians Weakening of Ottoman Empire 0 Russian wanted to conquer and expand The allied forces had a far superior industrial base compared to the Russians who were very backward thinking in their approach Allies?metal warships; Russia= wooden ships 0 complete takeover of Black Sea Allies could keep their army better supplied due to steam ships;

Russians= supply trains and marching due Congress of Vienna 1814 When victors of the Napoleonic wars gathered in Vienna, Austria to plan the post war world and reestablish the international order Meant to tie together the continental nations by a sense of moral values to create a balance of power Leader of Austria was against democracy- believed they were dangerous and unpredictable; wanted to preserve the power of the monarchs Other representatives= Prussia, France, Britain, Russia Issues- Germane composed of several small, futile states and kingdoms that couldn’t protect homeless; when Germanic peoples were weak and divided it tempted its neighbors such as France to expand However Germany was rapidly gaining power and took up a large chunk of Europe (unified Germany would be too great a threat to neighbors)- Solution= consolidate, not unify Germany France= Many wanted to punish France because of Napoleon- Meteoritic said France should be reprimanded but not left angry (mirrored Treaty of Versailles in 1919 Paris Peace Conference) Association of nationalism with revolution and the expansion of French military power Created

Quadruple Alliance= B, Austria, Prussia, and Russia- purpose was to prevent any trouble started by France Holy Alliance= Austria, Prussia, and Russia- to preserve the domestic status quo of Europeans (combat revolution and support monarchies in power) Austria felt nationalism could ruin her empire- empire consisted of a large Otto von Bismarck Bismarck, the creator of the German empire, became its first chancellor- When added to his Prussian positions (premier, foreign minister, and minister of commerce) the imperial chancellorship gave him almost complete control of foreign and mommies affairs. Peace necessary for consolidation of empire= he proposed to advance a strong military program (to gain the friendship of Austria) to avoid naval or colonial rivalry (to preserve British friendship) and to isolate France in diplomacy so that reverence (revenge) would be impossible. Formed Three Emperors’ League in 1872 (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia)- also maintained friendly relations with Italy.

Balkan rivalries of Austria and Russia and subsequent triumph of Austria at the Congress of Berlin over which Bismarck presided, caused rift in Russo-German elation’s- a defensive alliance with Austria was now concluded (this Dual Alliance became a Triple Alliance when Italy adhered in 1882) Friendship with Russia was revived in the Reinsurance Treaty of 1887 Bismarck, with his system of alignments and alliances, became the virtual arbiter of Europe Three Emperor’s League The aims of league= preserve social order of conservative powers of Europe and keep peace between Austria-Hungary and Russia. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 shook the alliance (see Congress of Berlin). Although the agreement was secretly ended in 1881, it was disrupted again in 1885 as a result of the Balkan flare-up. Remained in force until 1887, when it was eclipsed by the German-Austrian alliance of 1879- became the Triple Alliance in 1882 with Italy Joined.

All that remained of the Three Emperors’ League from 1887-1890 was a Russo-German reinsurance treaty. The German chancellor Graff von Capri refused to renew even this in 1890, thus opening the way for the Franco-Russian rapprochement and the creation of the Triple Entente Congress of Berlin United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman Empire revised the Treaty of San Stefan created March 3rd the same year. Most important task of the Congress was to decide the fate of the Principality of Bulgaria established in the Treaty of San Stefan. Bulgaria itself was excluded from participating in talks at Russian insistence.

Treaty of San Stefan had created a greater Bulgaria which was pro Russian- Great Britain and Austria-Hungary feared this Treaty reduced Bulgaria by two-thirds the size proposed in the San Stefan Treaty, with no access to the Mediterranean Sea Bulgaria becomes vassal state Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro gain independence Triple Alliance Germany had allied itself with Russia and Austria-Hungary in the Three Emperors’ League, but Austria-Hungary and Russia were not friends- partly because they were at odds over the Balkans and partly because Russia represented the Pan-Slavic Stefan (1878), following the Russo-Turkish War, furthered the cause of Pan-Slavish through the creation of a large Bulgarian state and offended Austria-Hungary as well as Great Britain.

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