A level History Notes
Meaning of term nationalism Good candidates realized that there were different forms of nationalism. For example, they noted that Italian nationalists included monarchists and republicans, centralists and federalists Some might argue that anti-Austrian feeling was stronger in Italy than nationalism, which appealed to a minority. Some answers deserved credit when they pointed out the limited appeal of nationalism Others, such as the Federalists, favored programmes that were hardly nationalistic but were policies to safeguard the rights of individual states.
Here regionalism was more important than support for a larger united ountry Mazzini struggled to win support for his cause. The Carbonari and Young Italy had limited support. Risings in the1830s were put down easily. 1848 was the clearest sign of nationalism but evidence of unity was slight. Although rulers Of some states conceded constitutions, they were back in control by the end of 1849. taly Germany 6 Metternich was as active in Germany as he had been in Italy to secure order and suppress nationalism.
After 181 5, support for a united Germany was confined to a small group of intellectuals and students. Candidates might refer to the Carlsbad Decrees (1819) which struck at nationalism and ssociated liberalism in Germany. Nationalism revived by 1 848, assisted as in Italy by poor economic conditions. During the revolutions of 1848-49, there were calls for a united Germany, culminating in the Frankfurt Parliament. However, its failure was due to limited support as well as poor leadership. The attitude of Frederick William IV of Prussia was also crucial. He rejected the offer of the German crown.
Some very able candidates might argue that nationalism played a minor role in both areas and that the revolutions arose from different grievances and factors. Some social groups were more concerned about economic grievances Why did the 1848 Revolutions fail in both Germany and Italy? The highest band will not need a 50150 balance. 60:40 can merit any mark Common Reasons There was a lack of clear aims in both regions. Although anti-Austrian feeling was a common factor some wanted liberalism but not unity others struggled for economic reasons, Only a minority sought unification.
Some favored a monarchy, others advocated a republic. There were different opinions about centralized rule and federalism. The middle classes tended to be preoccupied with their own interests and did not share the lower orders’ priorities of land and employment. Limited support for major political changes as both Germany and Italy contained powerful conservative forces that opposed the dangerous changes proposed by revolutionaries In Germany, many princes immediately reacted by granting constitutions which satisfied many who sought change.
The aim was not primarily for unification but for more liberal governments. (Give high credit when candidates appreciate the difference between support for unification and liberalism. ) Popular uprisings divided opinion or perhaps reinforced support for traditional authorities. None of the leading states supported unification. Frederick William IV of Prussia proved unreliable and turned against the rebels. The nearest that Germany came to a new unified government was perhaps the Frankfurt Parliament but it proved ineffective.
The failure of Frankfurt Parliament reflected the impotence of the middle classes to achieve change. In Germany, there were strong princes who used force to restore order, for example in Hesse. In Germany, there were divisions among the lower classes. It highlighted the division of opinion about a new Germany, for example should there be a greater Germany with Austria or a smaller Germany excluding Austria. Italy In Italy, there were similar differences between radicals. Rural peasants and the lower orders in towns had economic priorities rather than political ambitions.
Mazzini tried to use the Carbonari, then Young Italy, to drum up support but his followers were always in a small minority. The seizure of Rome and subsequent defeat revealed the limitations of his movement. He was not the paramount leader of the unification movement. Others, such as Manin in Venice, had different ideas. The Roman Catholic Church was also conservative in Germany but the role of Pius IX’s papacy in Italy was more important. Italian risings were markedly local in their extent and ambitions. For some, local grievances were most important.
For example, Sicily resented rule by Naples. Charles Albert of Piedmont tried to provide leadership but was ultimately ineffective. Austrian military strength was important. Charles Albert of Piedmont was defeated at Custozza. Their generals were more capable; answers might mention Radetsky in Italy. 7 The movement for independence and unification was more militant and aggressive in Italy than Germany during 1848-49, yet still at the time of time Of re-unification in 1 871 Germany was in a much stronger position than Italy.
Assess the reasons why it was so? (theoretical) Brief mention of Vienna Settlement where Prussia became more Germanic, while Italy was weakened by annexing Venetia and Lombardy and giving back autocrats their duchies In Italy there were various plans for re-unification like of that of Charles Albert, Mazzini and that of under the Pope. Some favored a monarchy, others advocated a republic. There were different opinions about centralized rule and federalism. In Germany there were only 2 plans of re- unification, Kleindeutschland or Grossdeutschland.
German unification was helped by the presence of the Zollverein (which gave the new country conomic strength and single standard of weights and currencies). The movement of people in between the different provinces helped build a sense of unity. Meanwhile in Italy there was no such economic unity. Piedmont was the only economically strong industrial state Prussia had a vastly superior army that that of Piedmont, which allowed it to deal with Austria with minimal foreign intervention and help Bismarck oversaw the whole process of re-unification while Cavour died in 1861.
Italy never produced a substantial replacement for Cavour in terms of diplomatic skills. Bismarck thus was able to manipulate foreign powers for growth of German ationalism for a greater period of time (Spanish candidature and Luxembourg affair) Bismarck never imposed Prussian laws on the other states. These states were allowed to have their own laws and monarchs provided that they swore loyalty to the new German Constitution and the Kaiser. Meanwhile, Piedmontese laws were imposed on the other states. It allowed the exploitation of the agricultural south by the stronger industrial north.
This was bound to lead to civil war Piedmontese governments were weak which was in sharp contrast to the autocratic rule of Bismarck and the Kaiser in Analyze the reasons for the growth of nationalism in Europe during the period from 181 5 to the unification of Germany and Italy (1870-71) Meaning of term Nationalism 8 The nature of nationalism Reasons for its growth, supported by references to Germany and Italy. (Candidates may refer to other countries such as France and Russia. Full credit will be given to such discussions. Nationalism, whilst weak in181 5, was encouraged by the changes that resulted from the French Revolution and especially from the effects of Napoleon Bonaparte’s rule. (the reduction in number of provinces, the new udicial system and a network of road and railways) Effects of the Vienna Settlement on the German Confederation (which developed a vague sense of nationalism) and on Austria’s hold over Lombardy and Venetia (which weakened as nationalism grew) There were early attempts in the 1820s and 1 830s either to express or suppress nationalism.
Carlsbad Decress (1818) showed Metternich’s increasing unease at the development of nationalist sentiment in Germany The importance of the 1848-9 revolutions which, although failures in Germany and Italy, provided an inspiration to those who wished for the unification of Germany and Italy. Failure of these exposed the weaknesses of nationalist forces at that point and provided a lesson. Failures of 1848-49 did not discredit nationalism as a force BUT they discredited the current methods used to achieve that end.
In Germany, it highlighted the importance of Prussia within Germany whilst realistic Italians such as Cavour saw the need for foreign assistance to defeat Austria. In Germany, nationalism had an had an economic appeal, for example through the Zollverein. Bismarck might not have been a German nationalist, rather a champion of Prussian interests, but he harnessed nationalism to achieve his aims.
In Italy, although Mazzini, the ultra-nationalist, did not achieve his aims of a united Italian republic, Cavour was forced to recognize nationalism as a force especially as represented by Garibaldi There was a growing awareness of national consciousness although there was also a strong regional or provincial feeling that was evident in Italy and Germany. Piedmont or Italy? Prussia or Germany?
High credit should be given when candidates discuss how far Bismarck and Cavour were German and Italian nationalists rather than champions of Prussia and Piedmont Assess the strengths and weaknesses of movement for German Unification rom 1815-1848? Strengths Brief mention of Vienna Settlement where Prussia became more Germanic and acquired the industrialzed Rhineland states. German unification was helped by the presence of the Zollverein (which gave the new country economic strength and single standard of weights and currencies).
The movement of people in between the different provinces helped build a sense of unity. The revolution of 1848 failed, nonetheless, the nationalist got close to unification by the formation of Frankfurt Parliament Fredrick William IV at once seemed open to German unification (once wearing the colours of German flag). He seemed to have rejected the crown due to fear of Metternich Metternich was overthrown in the revolution of 1848.
This allowed breathing space for German nationalists Weaknesses Brief mention of Vienna Settlement where Prussia had to absorb urban Catholic Rhineland states, who resented rule by the rural Protestant Prussians The constitution of the German Confederation was designed to maintain the current internal political situation and the integrity of individual states (not to promote nationalism) The Carlsbad Decrees of 1818, further limited free speech and hindered the propagation of nationalist ideas amongst ntellectuals The failure of revolutions demonstrated the inability of the middle class to achieve social and political change 9 Assess the strengths and weaknesses of movement for Italian Unification from 1815-1848? (theoretical) Strengths The contribution of Carbonari and Mazzini’s Young Italy in popularizing the cause of unification Charles Albert declared war on Austria and was able to secure Lombardy from Austrian control Metternich was overthrown in the revolution of 1848. This allowed breathing space for Italian nationalists Brief mention of Vienna Settlement where Austria annexed Lombardy and Venetia. Despotic rulers were given back the control of their duchies Disturbances in Italy were more concerned with regional disputes and economic conditions rather than desire for nationalism. Sicily resented rule by Naples.
The revolutions of 1820 was caused by high taxes and a corrupt government, while the 1848 revolution was caused by famine and demand for better wages The failure of revolutions demonstrated the inability of the middle class to achieve social and political change Mazzini failed to defend the Roman Republic against the French assault Venetian republic collapsed nd Charles Albert was defeated by the Austrians at Custozza Why did Piedmont play a leading role in the unification of Italy from 1848 to 1871? Monarchy Charles Albert played an important, if ultimately unsuccessful part in the revolutions of 1848-49, but he put Piedmont at the centre of resistance to Austria’s power in Italy.
Victor Emmanuel II did not play a very active part personally but gave weight to Piedmont’s position in the Risorgimento. Victor Emmanuel and his government recognized the historic importance of Rome, which then became the capital of the kingdom, although the constitution closely reflected that of Piedmont. Economic and Diplomatic Strength As a constitutional-monarchical state, Piedmont was better able to secure support from the governments of other countries, especially France, Britain and Prussia. Its economy was more developed than other Italian states, especially in the south. Thus it could be relied upon as reinforcements by France It had a larger army but still had to rely on outside military and diplomatic assistance.