Introduction3 1. First Inns, Pubs and Taverns in Riga and Latvia4 2. Hotel Development in 18th-19th century6 2. 1. Common characteristics6 2. 2. Hotel St. Petersburg7 2. 3. Hotel “Stadt London”8 2. 4. Hotel “de Rome”11 3. Hotel Industry during period of First Independence13 4. Hotel Industry during the Soviet Union15 4. 1. Common characteristics15 4. 2. Hotel “Daugava”16 4. 3. Hotel “Ridzene”17 5. Hotel Development in period of transition, and, after joining EU19 Conclusions23 Bibliography25 Introduction The theme of this Study Paper is „History of Hotel Sector Development in Riga” .
The aim of this Study paper is „ Characteristics and analysis of Hotel Development in Riga in different historical periods”. The author has achieved the aim of the Study Paper by finding, summarizing and analyzing the information about: • First Inns and Hotels in Riga and Latvia; • Hotel Development in 18th and 19th centuries; • Hotel Industry in the period of Latvia’s First Independence; • Hotel Industry during period of Soviet Union ; • Hotel Development in the period of transition and after joining EU Author has used Empirical and Statistical analysis methods for completing this Study Paper.
The period for developing this research were 2 months; the author has checked all the available information at internet, books, and magazines as well as has attended Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia and Museum of History of War and Shipping. The visit to Museum was unsuccessful as they were not pleased to welcome students, which unexpected moment for the author. Also, author was negatively surprised with such limited information regarding Hotel Sector development history in Riga and Latvia. All the information, which author has used in this research, originally is available just in Latvian language, except the statistical data.
Despite these negative moments, author has reached the main aim of this Study Paper and the tasks are completed as seen above. 1. First Inns, Pubs and Taverns in Riga and Latvia The first Wayside Inns were specially set up as a shelter for the night, with stable and shed, for travellers to take a rest. Usually, there always was a kind of a bar area, where traveller could have a drink and a meal. First written evidence regarding Inns in Latvia are extant since 13th century. The right to establish Inns were given by the German Order, Highest Pastorate and Riga Town Council.
From 17th century in manor houses’ revision documents is seen that in Riga and Riga’s district had been around 46 Inns and Taverns. Wayside Inns in Riga began to appear more fairly during 15-16th century, when trade between city dwellers and farmers started to broaden up. Each Inn had a name, for example: „ By The White Deer” , „ By The Red Cock” etc. –usually these names were written on the wall or on the signboard. Random stranger was able to ask for a shelter also at Pubs and Taverns, whose main task was to provide guests with meal and drink , mainly beer.
Initially these places or establishments were developing fairly spontaneous, as each inn-keeper and tavern-keeper was organizing inn business performance by his own thinking and understanding of how the things should be done. In 14th century the right to sell the beer and other spirits as well as to own an Inn were just to German houseowners. The Great Guild members wanted beer brew to be just their privelege. The Great Guild really succeded in obtaining the rule that craftsmen were not allowed to own an Inn. This new rule caused indignation and protests in Small Guild, so Town Council had to step back.
In spite of what was decided by the Town Council and wanted by the Guilds, still beer was brewed , sold, and Inns held by farmers and Riga Distict latvians. In 1585 Riga’s farmers oficially gained the right to own Inns, Pubs and Taverns. [2, pgs. 375-378] However, at that time, there were a lot of restrictions regarding Wayside Inns. It was not allowed to vend and store goods, to play cards and write complaints. Travellers could stay at Wayside Inn up to eight days, exceptions were seasonal workers, who stayed for a longer time.
Prominent guests, who arrived in the city , mainly stayed at well-known Riga’s houseowners. Since 1642 Russian trademen had their own „Moscow House”, a year later ‘Jewish House”was built. In the beginning of 17th century, Town Council established hotel, but soon it was liquidated as expenses were greater than incomes. [ 6, pgs. 116-117] In 17th century,at so-called Swedish Time, Latvian Inns, for the first time, were obeyed to some kind of established procedure,that happened, when King of Sweden ordered to arrange post stations at wayside inns which were located near by major roads.
Post station task was to provide the state couriers with horses and to make sure they are fed and rested. At the same time these wayside inns served other travellers. During „Swedish Time” inns in Riga developed quite widely. [ 7, pg. 30] There is lack of further information in regard to Initial form and performance of the first Inns, Pubs and Taverns. 2. Hotel Development in 18th-19th century 2. 1. Common characteristics In 18th century, when german privileges were increasing, farmers slowly were losing not only inn-keepers rights , but also the right to brew the beer and distil spirits for their own need.
In 1753, The Great Guild again tried to detract latvians with the rights in regard to inn-keeping, so soon inn-keeping was announced to be again just householders privilage. Latvians were exclaiming against this rule so they submitted allegation to the governor-general with an attached documents, which testified latvian craftsmen immemorial rights. Governor-general evaluated the case for the good of latvians and proclaimed referential resolution. [2, pg. 378] A geat deal of different Inns and Taverns appeared in 19th century. Mainly, it is associated with development of industry as well as abolition of serfdom.
In 19th century were established several institutions which were hosting just particular social groups and offering particular food. By the end of 19th century 30s Baltic Society was worried about these institutions as there often were seen some kind of irregularities. As an example was mentioned neibourcity Terbata ( Tartu) , where in 1838 were around 60 pubs and in there anyone could get anything for free. The owners of those places were not particularly wealthy, in about a year the income was around 30 silver rubles, therefore in pubs occurred irregularity and degeneration.
To improve this situation, in 1838 Town Municipality took taverns under its management so soon number of taverns decreased by half. This harsh action yielded to positive results as increased tavern-keeper financial gain as well as the degeneration ended up. This experience had been advised to Riga city, where scene was much the same. In 1849 Riga Municipality decided to inspect Riga’s taverns. The results regarding these revisions had been presented in January 1850 [7, pg. 31] In various documents and historical literature are found very different notation of institutions; its duties and specific characters.
In regard to guest service, the main role was given to hotels, also called as guest houses, and taverns with “restoration” or restaurants. More simple institutions were called as an inns or lower category taverns. These institutions usually were located in the cities. At countryside they were named simply as Pubs. In some 19th century 50s document are found two types of guest service establishment: Inn and Pub. Pubs were counted as Inns for farmers; these places had the right to sell beer and spirits.
In its turn inns and taverns partake in three subspecies: 1) Inns- in german called Bauerneinfahrten; in russian- zaezhije dvori; 2) Jewish wayside inns-in german called ebraer-herbergen; in russian-evreijskije postojalije dvori; 3) Russian wayside inns-russkijie postojalije dvori. Significant, that tavern did not pay tax nor to city or to country. There were just four of so called Russian wayside inns and they were located in suburbs of Moscow. As name proclaims, these inns had served mainly Russians, in opposition to Jewish inns, where you could meet not as many Jewish people as Riga citizens and immigrants.
Russian wayside inns often have operated without special permissions and their owners had avoided paying taxes. [7, pgs. 31-32] As seen from 1850s report regarding tavern revision, 18 taverns had been inspected and in Riga for highest category establishments were approved just two: “Hotel St. Petersburg” and ” Stadt London” 2. 2. Hotel St. Petersburg The hotel’s building was constructed in 1750, becoming a hotel in 1763. It was one of the first private hotels in Riga. It was situated on the street, which nowdays named 4 Pils Square; next to the Klostera Street.
The hotel was devised to host and to take care of supreme layer travellers, still the building was dump and unrepaired.. Inspectors, with an astonishment, stated that even inside the building dominated dirtiness, even pillows were almost without the pile. Turned out that at that time Rigas guests had to suffer in coldness as from 3rd floors 13 rooms just 3 were being heated. In hotel was working just one white-collar worker and two chambermaids; in charge of the hotel was some proprietor. The hotels kithen operated non-stop as food, prepared there, was marketable by people even outside the hotel.
Unfortunately, hotel amenities also were in poor condition- unclean and rammish. The hotels owner –Lankevics widow-was very ill so that was one of the main reasons of „hotel St. Petersburg”decline. [2, pgs. 378-381] In general, with a lapse of time, hotel building was rebuilt and enlarged several times. The biggest reconstructions took place in 1785, 1823 and 1874. In the course of time, the building had lost its original , early classicism style design, facade had been changed to eclectism style. At the end of 19th century the owner of „Hotel St. Petersburg” was Ludvig Klisman.
The hotel stayed in this family until its nationalization in 1941. In despite of that the hotel belonged to highest rating, however it runs behind the posh new hotels. At the beginning of 20th century hotel had 35-38 guest rooms. After World War I the hotel was managed by Hanss Klisman and it had a new name „ Peterpils Hotel”. After World War II the hotel was not restored anymore in the old building. In 1976 facade of the building had been restored, but in 1979 it was reconstructed for the use as an administrative hall. [ 1,pg. 165] 2. 3. Hotel “Stadt London” “Stadt London” was located on Kalku Street.
The owner Zalcmans on four floors had arranged 21 rooms. The rooms were small, yet clean and accurate. Service staff was much greater than in “Hotel St. Petersburg”, there were 3 waiters, 3 chambermaids, 1 porter and 2 valet boys. Hot food was served until 11 p. m. , therefore it was well-attended guest house. There were a considerably greater number of lower category inns-revision had inspected 10 of them, besides they had been divided into two groups: inns as its direct signification and those establishments, which were suitable just as a resting-place for coachmen.
As first, is mentioned inn with a resonant and pretentious name “Kings Arms”. It was located at bulwark between Salu and Grecinieku tower, on the Kramu Street. Initially it has been set up for attendance of English sailors, therefore there had been served specific English cuisine. Thanks to steward Nuton’s endeavor, the place gained good reputation. There were 3 very good rooms, besides they had parquet floors. Usually foreigners stayed at the “Kings Arms”. Nearby “Stadt London” some man named Fisher had set up catering establishment with five guest rooms.
This place was notable as it had billiards. At so called Sadovska house, which was situated on Tirgus and Svaru Street corner, merchant Bevads had created a wine hall. There, on the third floor, also were fixed-up three rooms for the visitors, usually there stayed sailors. Two of the guest service institutions were situated in the outskirts of Petersburg. One of them was quite presentable-guest house “Frankfurt am Main”, which was located on L. Aleksandra Street. The owner of this guest house was merchant Miksels and it had 15 rooms; all of them were placed on building’s second floor.
Out of all, just small part of them was in a good condition, the rest were unclean. “Frankfurt am Main” could not be proud of service staff as it had just one servant. Slantingly in front of “Frankfurt am Main” was situated one-floor inn “Zelta Erglis”, which belonged to merchant Steinert ; it had 14 rooms. Revisers found it consistently accurate and friendly, but as drawback was mentioned relatively small room size. In the outskirts of Moscow had been situated two inns-hotels. The major was place called “Stadt Dunaburg” (Daugavpils), which belonged to merchant Treger and was located on Elizabetes Street.
It had 14-16 rooms. Among these rooms, just one was in decent size, the others were very small. The other one place belonged to merchant Nesadomov and was situated on L. Maskavas Street. It offered 4 guest rooms, but it has not had a heating system, so guests had to suffer in coldness during the winter time. Wherewith, this place was suitable just for particular social group, namely, coachmen and carters. On the other side of Daugava , in the outskirts of Jelgava, had been relatively large number of hotels-nine; however, most of them were classified as simplest inns, which were devised for the carters’ stay and short rest.
Mainly, it was connected with a fact that there often stayed carters from Kurzeme, Zemgale , especially from Lithuania, who were delivering farming goods to Riga’s port for its further transportation. It is considered to be just three establishments which could be called a hotel of that time understanding. First of them ” Melnais Erglis” offered just 6 poor-furnished guest rooms, which were consistently unclean. There worked and served guests just one waiter and one waitress. On the 1 Noliktavu Street Riga’s guest could have a shelter in the place with a Scandinavian name “Stockholm”.
It was owned by a merchant Radeckis, who even did not bother to employ a service staff. There had been 5 “poor rooms”. The third hotel was called “Jansen Hotel” on Skolas street. In there, number of rooms depended on season. During the summer three rooms were available, during winter-choice become lesser by one room. Other establishments, which were presented as a guest houses, mostly referred to an ordinary inns with an accordant service level. Inn, situated on Liela Street, offered six poor-furnished rooms for carters and other travelers. The owner, A.
Smith, always was ready to rent out even his own apartment. He did not have service staff and a restaurant, where guests could have a meal. Straight across A. Smith’s inn, Jansen’s inn was situated with three tiny guest rooms. That place also had been without a restaurant. Here helped Heinriksen’s inn, which had not only had five guest rooms, but also a restaurant. Still, Heinriksen’s guests had to cope with a certain discomfort as the place had not had a heating; however during the summer it was not a problem. The harsh tavern check commission came to conclusion that only “St.
Petersburg” , “Stadt London”, “Kings Arms”, “Frankfurt am Main” and “Zelta Erglis” has gained positive valuation, the other hotels or inns were suitable for travelers with very low requirements and for those who will cope with a minimal comfort. Wherewith, it has been concluded that Riga has too few comfortable hotels, besides that the level of service has to be improved. [7, pgs. 33-34] In after years, there had been accepted several regulations and statutes, which required greater order regarding guest service. For example, in 1874, ” Hotel St. Petersburg” had been reconstructed again; from 2-floor it became a 3-floor building. Mr.
Ludvig Klisman became a new owner-the hotel stayed in his family until it become nationalized in 1941. 4. Hotel “de Rome” In front of German theatre, on 5 Aspazijas boulevard, houseowner and contractor Kristaps Morbergs, together with some other houses, in 1878 established the best and the most luxurious hotel in Riga: “Hotel de Rome” ‘Hotel de Rome” was built in 1878 in eclectic style, using Italian renaissance time architecture forms. Firstly, it was located in front of the first city (german) theatre on 5 Teatra Street (now Aspazijas Boulevard). From the beginning, it was set and kept as the most modern and the highest standard hotel.
It had had 80 rooms, which costed 1 to 10 rubles. It was first hotel, which had electric light, elevator and telephone. Also, it had its own cartage, later car, which was used as a guest transfer from station to the hotel. [1, pg. 168] There were established two highest level restaurants-one on the first floor;the other-in the hotel’s basement. To that time “Hotel de Rome” was counted as a really big and really could provide guests with a high comfort. As a proof of that were several entrances into the building-in total four plus one more for the hotel’s staff.
The main entrance conducted in the hotel and its nearby being restaurant. There were two separate entrances to the basement’s restaurant. The fourth entrance was opened only during the evenings and through it you could get into the concert hall. There was a hotel hall and a lobby in an orchestra, also a reading and a writing room as well as the first floor’s restaurant halls. Each of the hotel and restaurant rooms had a special name- in tune with furniture, carpet, tapestry and ceiling paint. Several rooms were decorated with expensive paintings and huge crystal mirrors. [2, pg. 83] Luxury and brilliance as well as the first class restaurants attracted rich travelers, who rode into Riga, therefore an advertisement was unnecessary for the “Hotel de Rome”. In the beginning of 19th century the hotel and restaurant was rented by Vilhelm Pulver, later, until World War I, leaseholder was Karlis Kaufmans. During Latvia’s first independence time Jergensons family became a long-term leaseholder of the “Hotel de Rome”. They had already owned Otto Swartz restaurant and Theatre Cafe as well as 2 wine shops and some other establishments. During World War II, the hotel’s building had been destroyed.
Instead of it, by attaching six former neighbor building’s plots, in a period between 1948 and 1954, by project of architects S. Antonovs, J. Arhipovs and A. Aivars, the hotel “Riga” was built. [1, pg. 168] In 1864 in Riga had been already 13 hotels. All of them were located in inner city, protected by a bulwark. After demolishing the bulwark, new and at that time modern hotels were built in newly formed boulevard range. A great deal of old hotels ceased to exist as they mismatched with the new requirements. The biggest and the most modern hotels lasted much longer. Those hotels were: “Hotel St.
Petersburg”, “Hotel Central”, “Hotel de Commerce”, “Hotel de Rome”, ” Warschau” , “Metropol”, “Imperial” and ” Bellevue”. From all these hotels, just hotel “Metropole” remained to stay in its old building and with its old name. [1, pg. 160] In 19Th century 80s, in the heart of Old Town, where now is located Dome Square, was built one of Riga’s best hotels at that time “Central-Hotel’. Since 1892 in Riga’s guidebooks was mentioned that “Central-Hotel” had 20 rooms, which costed from 60 kopecks to 30 rubles per night. There was also a restaurant which operated until 3. 00 a. m.
In 20th century’s “Central-Hotel” advert clearly was pointed out that guests are welcome to use telephone, bath, restaurant and a breakfast table (it was a new thing for hotels”. In 19th century 70s, at the former bulwark zone, had developed new constructions. Two of those buildings were used in establishing two hotels, which belonged to two different owners. On 12 Teatra boulevards “Hotel du Nord” was established. It had 35 rooms which had costed from 60 kopecks to 3 rubles. On 13 Teatra Boulevard “Hotel de Commerce” was situated. It had 45 rooms and had costed from 75 kopecks to 4 rubles per night.
Later, “Hotel du Nord” obtained a new name ‘Metropol”, while “Hotel de Commerce” restaurant became popular with its Russian cuisine. At the second half of 19th century were established hotels, such as “Savoy”, “Saule” and others. 3. Hotel Industry during period of First Independence In the 20th century the meaning of guest house has clear designation. Places, where food and drink was sold just for the use on the spot, were called taverns and pubs. For travelers, who wanted to stay overnight, hotels were the proper place for that. The number of hotels and their commodity sharply changed after World War I.
At the second half of 20s and in 30s there were 13 best hotels, which names are already known. They are: • “Bellevue” on 33 Raina Boulevard • “Central” on 20/22 Kr. Barona Street • “Frankfurt am Main” on 25 Brivibas Street • “Grand Exalsior” on 5 Gogola Street • “Astorija” on 10/12 Terbatas Street • “Komerc” on 12 Aspazijas Boulevard • “Marss” on 28a Kr. Barona Street • “Metropol” on 12 Aspazijas Boulevard • “Parks” on 71/73 Elizabetes Street • “Riga” on 7 Terbatas Street • “Roma” on 5 Aspazijas Boulevard • “Saule” on 12 Merkela Street • “Savoy” on 5 Marijas Street
Almost all of these hotels had 1st class restaurants. [2, pg. 400] The most expensive and the most comfortable still was hotel “Rome”. The night at this hotel costed from 5 to 35 Lats. The other hotel prices were much lesser (between 3 -16 Lats per night). Still, farmers who came to Riga could stay at Inns (baiting-places), which were strictly supervised. The last update regarding the regulations at Inns was made on 18th of June 1937 by Riga committee. The name of this document was “Mandatory conditions in regard to baiting-places in the capital city Riga” Here are mentioned few of these paragraphs: ) For arrangement, hold, expansion, lease, transference, transcription as well as a use of specific title of a baiting-place is required permission which is given by Riga City Commerce Committee. For using a specific name is required to hand-in a special application which then will be considered by Riga City commerce Committee. The baiting places have to be situated on especially for this purpose built premises with a suitable courtyard. 4) It is allowed to stay at the baiting place for not longer than 7 days for ersons, whose passport proves that they are from another place of residence. For Riga citizens it is forbidden to stay at these places. 5) For people, who do not have a stated place of residence and a stated occupation is forbidden to stay at baiting place. 12) Baiting-place should have at least one room, where traveler can stay and spend the night. The rooms have to have clean basin with fresh water and a glass. Traveler’s room has to be set up in the way that every person would have 10 cubic meters of air. Each room has to have instruction of how many people are allowed to spend the night in that particular room at once.
All the items which belong to the room have to be clean and in a good order. 13) Each baiting-place has to have a protected space for at least five horses and carts as well as a well with clean water, pail and a feed-bunk. 24) Any commerce at the baiting-place is strictly forbidden. 20) Prostitutes are not allowed to stay, live and operate at baiting-places, they can not be counted as an employee of these premises. The prices and settlement orders were different at different baiting-places. Farmers still paid with a farm produce for their stay.
In length of time hotels became better and better, therefore all the distrustful guest service premises disappeared. [2, pgs. 401-402] 4. Hotel Industry during the Soviet Union 4. 1. Common characteristics As mentioned further, in Soviet Union period Riga also could not exist without hotels . In 1950s information brochure “Riga. Iss Celvedis” were recommended 11 hotels with total of 800 sleep places. Hotels such as “Balta”, Stalingrada”, “Daugava”, “Sports”, “Padomju”, “Metropole”, “Riga”, “Saulite”, “Aurora”, “Tempo’ and “Viktorija” were established in previous years and some of them just had changed the name.
For example, “Komerc” became “Soviet Hotel” (later it was joined with beside located hotel and taking its name “Metropole”. “Savoy” became “Aurora”; “Bellevue” became “Stalingrada” (later “Baltija”). [2, pgs. 401-403] In 1944 was established “Hotels’ Communal Administration Trust”, which managed all the hotels. In 1963 was created “Riga’s City Nations’ Deputy Council Executive Committee’s Hotel Trust” which had supervised communal hotels. Departments and Ministries had created their own hotels for their own employees’ usage. During Soviet Union, the particular matters were prices. They have never been open to publicity.
Even in statistical data and in economical literature were used special codes or percentage comparison. It had been this way because USSR cabinet was the one who decided on all the prices. They have never announced them “loudly”. Therefore, prices changed quietly and imperceptibly. Rooms at the hotel, depending on the level of comfort, varied from 2 to 5 rubles per night. There were a more luxurious and more expensive hotels for foreigners as well as cheaper department hotels with a relatively high comfort level. Hotels which served foreigners, offered a lot of different services.
These services had strictly stated prices. For example, in hotel “Riga” was possible to get an interpreter for 1. 5 rubles per hour. There was possible to rent a television-it costed 40 kopeks per night. During the Soviet Union in Riga were established more hotels. In 1972 was built hotel “Daugava”; in 1974 hotel hotel “Turistu” ; in 1979 hotel “Latvia” and in 1984 hotel “Ridzene”. Hotel “Rome” was completely destroyed during the World War II. In 1957 half of the hotel “Rome” background was used for constructing a new building. This new building became a hotel “Riga” . [2, pgs. 403-405] 4. 2. Hotel “Daugava”
This hotel had several names. Firstly, it was called “Daugava”, then “Polarbek” and then it became a hotel “Radisson SAS Daugava Hotel Riga”. This building has a 25 years old history which is not so much on the whole; yet hotel “Daugava” experienced changes, worthy of attention. Furthermore, from these 25 years of being a hotel, it had operated just for 15 years; the other ten was spent in developing and reconstructing it. In the beginning of 70s the hotel ‘Daugava” was established by the design of architects such as A. Reinfelds, A. Grina and V. Kadirkovs. However, by the end of 70s the hotel was re-constructed.
Full hotel’s design was completed in 1981, yet, the plan was too “avant-garde”, and therefore our own builders did not want to work on suck a “risky” object. For the very reason, just in 1985 it had been managed to find the builders and they were a polish company. In 1992 a new contract with Polish Company was prepared. But, due to changes in political situation, the present investor decided to step back, therefore a new offer was accepted from a company called “Polarbek”. This company offered to completely take over hotel’s construction as they were ready to invest their own funds.
Due to the precarious changes in Latvia’s political situation, company “Polarbek” had to borrow funds for completing the hotel’s “Daugava” construction. Therefore, they found a new partner which was a hotel service company “Radisson”. Partly, hotel opened its doors in 1st of July 1995, but it already had offered 350 rooms. “Radisson” was known as a very high standard hotel service company; therefore hotel’s “Daugava” project had to be modified. From USA side company “Best Severin’ was developed hotel’s concept, assigning the real planning and drawing to our own architects.
Hotel’s rooms’ arrangement was formed in the way that for hotel’s guests it would be comfortable to reach as well as for conference and other event participants. This hotel’s service is suitable not only for tourists, but also for businessmen. Riga’s “Radisson SAS” could be characterized as a simple, comfortable and in classical style furnished hotel. Red and green colors are dominant in the hotel’s interior. Different colors’ room arrangement is seen in even and uneven hotel floors. The most part off decoration materials have been ordered in USA and Finland.
Hotel’s guest rooms’ interior has Latvian bird graphics. Hotel’s public rooms’ interior is decorated with Dzemma Skulme, Miervaldis Polis and other popular painters’ works. In its turn, all the hotel’s hallways are decorated with Inars Helmuts graphics, where Latvian architectural monument reproductions are seen. [8, pgs. 18-23] In general, hotel service culture improves during the 60s, when Riga City is open for foreign tourists. For their needs was established USSR foreign tourism association’s “Inturist” hotel, which named “Latvia” –it was the first international style high-rise building in Riga.
The architect of this building was A. Reifelds. 4. 3. Hotel “Ridzene” In 1984, by a project of architects Z. Kalinka, J. Gertmanis and V. Kadirkovs, hotel “Ridzene” was built. It was created for a use of Soviet Highest Party and Government Nomenclature employees. Guest houses’ building concluded boulevards’ circumference construction’s block. Hotel’s building, for the first time in Riga, have obtained luxurious and idiomatic central hall in all its height with rooms situated around it. In 1999, when Norwegian investors overtook the hotel, it had been re-constructed by a Z.
Kalinka project and it already had a name “Park Hotel Ridzene”. Underground garages, panoramic elevators, restaurant “Pyramid”, centre of body culture and other facilities testify the growing service level in Riga’s hotels. In general, most of the greatest and mostly known hotels were established exactly in period of Soviet Union. Of course, these hotels has improved and developed, but the main idea and style have stayed original. 5. Hotel Development in period of transition, and, after joining EU
After becoming an independent country again; besides governmental hotels, private hotels start to be established more and more broadly. By the end of 90s the total number of these hotels exceeded 40. Also, range of new termins appeared in terminology. They are such as: motel, hotel, guest house, guest Service Company, B and others. All of them were different by a kind of prices and services they offer. Author, after investigating the “Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia” data, has created a graph where the hotel temp of growth is shown [See Fig. ] Fig 1 Number of Hotels in Riga in period 1994-1997 [pic] After analyzing this graph, the author has observed that if compare year 1994 and year 1997, the increase is just 8 hotels. As seen from the graph, in 1998 not even one hotel was established. [9, pg. 129] Further, the author has observed the statistics for years 1998-2004. After analyzing it, the author has observed that just in year 2000 one more hotel was established, making it 29 in Riga. In period between year 2000 and year 2003, the great number of hotels was established, if comparing with previous years.
The number of hotels had increased by 16 hotels during 3 years time. In 2004 there was not further increase. The number stayed the same- 45 hotels. The author also has developed a graph where the hotels are shown by category in the period between 1997 and 2004. [See Fig. 2] Fig 2 Hotels in Riga by category in period 1997-2003 [pic] As seen from this graph, mostly there were 3 star hotels. Also, the author has observed that there was a gradual increase of 5 star hotels. In period of 2000-2004, there was a great increase of hotels which have not had any stars.
The number of these hotels exceeded 1*, 2* and 4* hotel number. [10, pg. 134] As known from authors experience, statistical data information is represented quite approximately as they have information just about hotels which have registered for statistical research. By the data of ” Viesnicu un Restoranu centrs” , by the end of 2004, in Latvia, 114 guest accommodation service establishments were certificated; 75 of them were hotels, 9-resort hotels, 26 guest houses, 2 motels and 2 campings. In 2004, after joining EU, there appeared a shortage of economical class hotels.
At that time, the cheap airline companies began to operate; therefore there was a prognosis that travelers, flying with cheap airlines, would not be able to afford a 4 and 5 star hotels. [4, pg. 10] In 2005, in Riga, were established 19 more hotels (this number includes a reconstructed ones), comparing with establishment of 5 hotels in 2004. It is explained with general tourism development in Riga and Latvia. Comparing years 2005 and 2006 is seen that hotel growth increased just by 3 hotels. Total number of hotels, motels and spa hotels by the end of year 2005 in Riga was: 65; by the end of 2006-68 hotels. See Fig. 3) Fig . 3 Hotels, spa hotels and motels in Riga in years 2005 and 2006 [pic] This large hotel development boom was related to “World Ice Hockey Championship” which was held in Riga. Also, city was preparing for a NATO summit, which was held in November 2006. During the Ice Hockey Championship, Lithuanian and Estonian travel agencies had to move the travelers to Finland, St. Petersburg and other locations as Riga simply did not have a place any more for accommodating tourists. [5, pg. 14]; [See Fig. 4] Figure 4 Number of visitors in Riga’s hotels, spa hotels and motels [pic] By adding Fig. , author has shown the great increase of visitors between years 2005 and 2006. As mentioned before, this great difference is mainly related with “World Ice Hockey Championship” and NATO summit which were held in Riga in 2006. All these moments prove that the tourism market in Riga and Latvia develops very speedily, and there appeared information that big international hotel chains such as “Scandic” and “Accor” are going to appear in Latvia tourism market. Conclusions 1. The first Wayside Inns were specially set up as a shelter for the night, with stable and shed, for travellers to take a rest 2.
Wayside Inns in Riga began to appear more fairly during 15-16th century, when trade between city dwellers and farmers started to broaden up. 3. In 17th century,at so-called Swedish Time, Latvian Inns, for the first time, were obeyed to some kind of established procedure 4. A geat deal of different Inns and Taverns appeared in 19th century. Mainly, it is associated with development of industry as well as abolition of serfdom. 5. In regard to guest service, the main role was given to hotels, also called as guest houses, and taverns with “restoration” or restaurants. More simple institutions were called as an inns or lower category taverns. . It is considered to be just three establishments which could be called a hotel of that time understanding 7. Other establishments, which were presented as a guest houses, mostly referred to an ordinary inns with an accordant service level. 8. In after years, there had been accepted several regulations and statutes, which required greater order regarding guest service 9. In the 20th century the meaning of guest house has clear designation. 10. At the second half of 20s and in 30s there were 13 best hotels, which names are already known. 11. The last update regarding the regulations at Inns was made on 18th of June 1937 by Riga committee. 2. The name of this document was “Mandatory conditions in regard to baiting-places in the capital city Riga” 13. In Soviet Union period Riga also could not exist without hotels 14. Most of the greatest and mostly known hotels were established exactly in period of Soviet Union. 15. After becoming an independent country again; besides governmental hotels, private hotels start to be established more and more broadly 16. In period of 2000-2004, there was a great increase of hotels which have not had any stars. The number of these hotels exceeded 1*, 2* and 4* hotel number. 17.
The large hotel development boom in 2005 and 2006 was related to “World Ice Hockey Championship” and NATO summit which were held in Riga. Bibliography 1. Caune A. Rigas Vecpilseta pirms 100 gadiem. -Zinatne, 1994. -pgs. 160-170. 2. Eglite B. Riga Maksa. -Nordic,-2001. -pgs. 373-414. 3. Amolina L. Viesnicas Riga noslogotas par 80%. //Dienas Bizness. -Nr. 173 (2004,9. sept. ), pg. 3 4. Balode I. Latvija cetras pieczvaigznu viesnicas//Neatkariga Rita Avize. -Nr. 231 (2004,4. oct. ), pg. 10 5. Rozenbaha L. Riga cel viesnicas//Latvijas Avize. -Nr. 74 (2006, 16. mar), pg. 14 6. Rigas Laiks Attelos. -Zvaigzne ABC, 1999. pgs. 114-120 7. Straube G. Rigas iebraucamas vietas un viesnicas 19. gadsimta vidu//Latvijas Vestures Instituta zurnals. -Nr. 1 (1999), pgs. 30-35 8. Viluma A. Radisson SAS Daugava Riga Hotel 15 minusu gajiena no centra//Latvijas Arhitektura. -Nr. 2 ( 1995), pgs. 18-23 9. Riga in Figures 1998//Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia. -Collection of Statistical data. -Riga (1998),pgs. 129-130 10. Riga in Figures 2005//Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia. -Collection of Statistical data. -Riga (2006), pgs. 133-137 11. Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia. //http://data. csb. gov. lv/Dialog/Saveshow. asp