History of American Policing
How the Night Watch System worked as people would volunteer to watch over their neighborhood and keep the piece all night long. Nobody was In charge of doing this, It was strictly whoever wanted to do It could. Soon American scales grew too large for this system, they had to find another way to patrol the cities. The colonies decided to use the same law enforcement style that their mother country, England, used. The government hired people to enforce laws. Whoever the government chose to hire would be easily recognized as police officers and they would wear uniforms and hats.
In 1833, Philadelphia became the iris city to employ both day and night watchmen. Five years later Boston formed the first organized police department, consisting of SIX full time officers. (“Criminal Justice” Gaines/Miller). It’s amazing how far law enforcement has come since then, now instead of six law enforcement officials we have several law enforcement agencies full of thousands of people. We even have state and federal law enforcement officials. Some of the most important state law enforcement officials are the police and the highway patrol.
They have evolved drastically since 1833, and are owe some of the most important people in their respected states. Some of the most Important federal law agencies are the FBI, and the CIA. Even though these are newer than the state law enforcement Norton 3 officials they still have a long and rich history. Law enforcement is the backbone of this country that has made us who we are today. Ever since 1 833 states have had their own law enforcement agencies called the police. But back then It was a lot different than It Is today.
When police agencies first started to you had to be elected by political officials to become an officer. This period in policing is called the “Political Era. ” This era lasted from 1840-1930. But the political era was very corrupt. Police salaries were very low so many of the officers would take bribes, or “favors” as a way to have a better income. This was called the Patronage System. During this era many officers would also provide social services for their bosses constituents, many times these responsibilities would even be more Important than the actual law enforcement.
The Political Era was not a good era In united States policing. (Criminal Justice “Gaines/Miller). But when Wickers Commission took over the police department things stated to take a turn for the better. This became known as the Reform Era and took place from 1930-1967. The commission wanted to take the politics out of policing and wanted to stop police brutality, and for the most part they were very successful. The Wickers Model centralized police organization, increased the use of technology in the police, and limited police discretion.
During the Reform Era the police put in more middlemen policeman to help keep an eye out on the officers, they also increased police salaries o that there would be less corruption throughout the agency. But during the Civil Rights Era things started to go downhill for the police again. In the sass crime rate in America doubled. With all of the riots and antiwar sentiment the police had a lot on their hands. During this time the police became a symbol in society that denied blacks equal rights under the law. This did not look good on the Norton 4 police, and an era that started off so good ended on such a low note. Criminal Justice “Gaines/Miller/ “History of American Policing”, 2011). The final era of policing that we re currently in today is called the Community Era. In this era the police have become closer to the community, and interact with the civilians a lot more in an attempt to prevent crime. During this era police officers were asked to become a problem solver just as much as a crime fighter. The police in the United States have had a very up and down history, but today they are one of the most important Jobs in society.
As important as the police are they are not the only state law enforcement officials. The Highway Patrol is another state law enforcement department. In my pinion the Highway Patrol are the most underrated law enforcement officers, hardly anyone gives them recognition for their hard work. But since Highway Patrol is ran by the state every agency has a very different history, for example, every agency even started at different times. For instance the Utah Highway Patrol started in 1923, while the California Highway Patrol started in 1929.
When the patrol first started in Utah, they only had 2 “patrolmen” and they didn’t even have uniforms they were Just state employees. In 1928 they added three more officers and gave them uniforms and edges, their budget was only 11,743 dollars! Since then the agency has grown very much and the budget has also increased. In 1990 the Utah State Highway Patrol had 192 officers. The highway patrol are responsible for five things; the first is accident investigation, they gather evidence to see what the cause of the accident was.
They enforce highway laws such as speeding. They educate the public about highway laws. They respond to emergencies. And they also report any damage on the road. But believe it or not, when the agency first started there were not a lot of laws to enforce, in 1931 every state in the United States passed the Traffic Act which made it so drivers Norton 5 had to have vehicle registration, a driver’s license, automobile anti-theft, and uniform traffic regulation. As automobile technology increased and cars started driving faster the importance of the highway patrol grew.
In the sass the patrol stated to grow again. The sass was a very important decade for Utah Highway Patrol, during this decade they started having Red Cross on highways to respond to emergencies faster, officers started to receive firearm training, and in 1951 the Department of Public Safety was created. During the next several decades highway patrol technology increased dramatically, they started to make helicopter, the invented the radar gun among several things that helped make patrolling easier.
Today the Highway Patrol are one the most important agencies in the country, (“History of the Utah Highway Patrol Beginning in 1923,” by Sergeant Less Langford, Ret). Law enforcement agencies. The most famous federal law enforcement agency is the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The FBI was created in 1908 by Attorney General Charles Bonaparte. The FBI was made to deal with things like interstate commerce and foreign affairs, because during that time the federal government looked to cities and states to fulfill the need of a national government.
There were also very few federal crimes, the agency mostly dealt with national banking, bankruptcy, naturalization, antitrust, peonage, and land fraud. On May 10, 1924 the FBI was handed over to J. Edgar Hoover, under Hoover the agency grew rapidly and by the end of the decade they had agencies all over the country. As soon as Hoover was put in office he fired anyone that he felt was unqualified, he even made training orgasm that you had to complete before you could become an agent. By the end of the sass the FBI was becoming a force in American law enforcement.
And in the sass the FBI was a part of making many new federal Norton 6 laws, the played a major role in new kidnapping laws and laws about criminals crossing over state lines. During World War 2 the FBI also played a major role, they were responsible for making sure that everything on our homeland was safe so they arrested anyone who was a threat to our national security, this included the arrests of 33 German, Japanese, and Italian spies. They also did much of the same during the Cold War. They would arrest anyone who was a suspected communist and take them into Federal custody.
In the sass the FBI really had their work cut out for them with terrorism. Once terrorism stated happening in the U. S. And all over the world the FBI was responsible for keeping the people in America safe, and this holds true today. During this decade they also made a National Security threat list with some of the most dangerous criminals in the world. The Bureau to this day has this list and they keep a close eye on anyone who is on the list. As the ass started and technology became more advanced it has become easier the FBI to catch criminals.
They now have wires that they can go undercover and make recordings to use as evidence to convict criminals, and DNA identifying has become much more advanced. The FBI also got much more Jurisdiction over federal crimes during this decade and they deal with some of the most dangerous, wanted criminals in the country. After the terrorist attacks of 9-11 President Bush passed the Patriots Act which made it so you can listen to people phone conversations, read their e-mails, etc. His made it so the FBI can keep a better watch on suspected terrorists and keep the American people safer.
Over the past hundred years the FBI has went from a small law enforcement agency to the biggest, most famous, law enforcement agency in the country that has more jurisdiction than any other federal agency. Without the FBI this great country would be a very different place, (“FBI. Go). Norton 7 The final law enforcement agency that I’m going to talk about is the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The CIA has Jurisdiction over anything that has to do with foreign countries. They are an intelligence-gathering agency that deals mainly with terrorism and foreign affairs.
The CIA was made in 1947 as part of the National Security Act after World War 2. In the Acacia’s early days are they were responsible for analyzing it. As time went on the CIA received more responsibilities from the government. The CIA became responsible for enforcing Executive Orders made by the president, and they are now responsible for gathering information on some of the world’s most dangerous terrorists, (The CIA was the organization that gathered the intelligence that lead to the death of Osama Bin Laden). The CIA was the most important intelligence gathering agency in the U. S. Urine the red scare. They found out all of the information that the United States government needed to know about the Soviet Union; they found out how many nuclear bombs the U. S. S. R had, if they were making more, and what they were talking about doing with them. The CIA always had undercover special agents stationed in the Soviet Union. The CIA was also played a major role in gathering intelligence during the Korean and Vietnam wars. Even though the CIA doesn’t have as long and glorious past like many of the other law enforcement agencies they are Just as important as any other agency.
They help our government stay one step ahead they rest of the world and they keep our country and all of us who live here safe from other countries and people who want to hurt us without taking any credit for it; in large part because they stop bad things from happening before they even happen. The CIA saves thousands of lives a year (“CIA. Gob’ “fast. Org/rip/CIA”). Norton 8 America is the freest country in the world, but that doesn’t mean that we don’t have laws, we are a country of laws, and we have lots of them. And with laws come people who enforce the laws.
America has to any law enforcement agencies to count and each agency has Jurisdiction over different things. With so many different agencies that specialize in different things it is no wonder why we have the best law enforcement in the world. The one thing that can really tear a country down is fighting within its self, and with our great law enforcement I don’t think that that will ever happen. Each agency is important in its own way and if we lost one it would be a very bad thing for our country. There is no doubt in my mind that law enforcement is the backbone of this country that has made us who we are today.