Leo Polonsky History Alive Chapter 7 “The American Revolution Date: October 25, 2011 | |Revolutionary war begun in 1775 | |How and when did Revolutio- |British landed 25000 troops in New York | | nary war begun? The Declaration of Independence was just signed when the war begun | | |Troops in New York were badly trained and no well equipped. | | |People were sick. British army were opposite, they had equipment, food | | |They were well trained to fight. 00 British ships were stationed in harbor. | | | | | | | |What were the pros/cons for |Patriots began the revolution in weak position. They were not organized. | | |The army was not trained.
They did not have enough men. | |Continental Army? |George Washington had only 20000 in Continental Army. | | |The army had food shortages, no clothes for the bad winter, no shoes. | | |There were not enough money in Congress to raise funds for upgrades. | | |Congress printed money for the war but merchants demanded gold. | |Despite the weaknesses the army had strengths by patriotism. | | |People willingly gave their lives for liberty. There was overseas help | | |From France in particular who hated English. | | |Also George Washington was an experienced military leader. | | | | | | |What were the pros/cons for |British army had 50000 soldiers and 30000 mercenaries, hired soldiers | | |G | | |from Germany and African Americans and Native Americans. | | | | |British Army? The soldiers were well trained, fired artillery well and well supplied. | | |The problems were the geographical distance between Britain & America. | | |No patriotism was present, people didn’t see why they are fighting. | | |Planning was difficult and cost a lot of money. The leadership was poor. | | |Lord George Germain had no sense on how to defeat the rebels. | | |The Lord never set food in America and kept on changing his plans. | | | | | | |The role of African Americans |British forces led by General Howe were advancing on NY and Boston. | |in the war. |Washington hurried with his army to New York. Washington did not want | | |his army to become a heaven for run-away slaves.
He did not use the | | |support of African Americans. Black militiamen fought at Lexington, | | |Concord, Bunker Hill . By 1779 Continental Army allowed 15% of soldiers | | |to be African American. Washington reconsidered his position. Black | | |sailors served Continental Navy as well.
White population begun to | | |question the beliefs and realized that all men are created equal and should | | |should have the same rights to life and happiness. As the war ended | | |Vermont, Connecticut, Massachussets, New Hamshire, Rhode Island and | | |Pennsylvania took steps to end slavery. | | | | | | |What happened in 1776? |The first of many Continental Army defeats came in 1776. American and | | |British Armies met in New York. Americans lost 1407 men, British only | | |377.
Washington did not want to give up but had to retreat the army. | | |British forces chased the Americans out of New York, through New Jersey | | |and into Pennsylvania. There was little food, little clothes, soldiers were | | |weak and hungry and they started to give up. The roads were cold and | | |muddy.
By the time Continental Army reached PA, they were only a few | | |thousand men. | | | | |How did the war started to |British thoughts that the war was won. General Howe offered to pardon all | |turn around for Americans? |Rebels who signed a statement of obedience to the king. Washington | | |planned an attack on Hessain troops new Trenton, NJ.
Late on Dec 25, | | |1776 American soldiers in harsh conditions crossed Delaware River and | | |attacked happily sleeping British soldiers. 868 prisoners surrendered | | |without Washington losing a single man. Another 300 were captured | | |later near Princeton, NJ. This was a wake up call for general Howe, as the | | |war was not yet over and won by British. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |