History Paper

NO foreign troops in Belgium and restored independence for them as well 8. Germany has to leave all French territory including Laces-Lorraine 9. Italy should be expanded to all areas where people speak Italian, and the territories promised in the London-Treaty 10. Self-determination for the ethnicities in the Status-Hungarian area 1 1. Foreign troops leave the Balkan region. Serbia expanded to the sea. All nations there should be restored 12. The Turks in the Ottoman Empire can rule themselves still, but other national groups in the empire should be allowed to form their own states.

The Darkness should be a free international waterway. 13. Independent Poland with access to the sea is needed 14. League Of Nations Great Britain Prerequisites to their aims. Entered because of invasion of Belgium and to protect France Needed full control of the sea and the biggest Navy Lost 900. 000 men in the war Due to loss of valuable cargoes they had a huge war debt in 1 91 9 mostly to the US Got Germany’s entire navy due to the 1 918 armistice The aims of KGB Naval aims 1. Elimination of the German naval threat 2. Rejected the idea violin’s second point regarding free access to the sea for every nation.

Colonial aims 1 . Great Britain wanted to take over or take away Germany’s colonies so that a future German navy would have no ports existing, and they wanted to take over some of Germany’s trade. 2. Britain made an agreement with France in 191 6 (Pike-Sykes agreement) where they planned to expand in the Middle- East for Oil resources at the expense Of the Ottoman Empire. Regarding Germany 1 . Meant that Germany should be made to pay reparations to KGB, but not more than Germany could handle. Britain wanted the German economy to stabilize itself as quickly as possible as Britain were dependent on the

German economy. Germany was one of the most industrialized countries in the world at the time, which made them a huge exporter and importer for Britain. In addition, the US had taken most of Britain’s overseas trade. 2. Britain also feared communistic influence in Germany. By making the German people content and stable, they hindered the need for a revolution from the German workers. France Prerequisites for the French Aims France had been severely humiliated by Germany in a previous war and lost two rich provinces called Laces and Lorraine. Lost 1. Million by the Schlemiels plan attack by Germany Northern France was severely damaged by the German military massive war debt France wanted Germany to pay The actual aims Territorial aims 1. Return of Laces and Lorraine 2. Wanted the creation of nations such as Poland, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia in order to create a power balance in central Europe 3. Independent state in the Rangeland. This was to weaken Germany economically as Rangeland was the location for major resources and industry. It would in addition work as a buffer state between Germany and France, and Germany and Belgium. 4.

The Sara, one of the most industrialized, coal rich areas in Germany, was also on France’s wish list as compensation for the war. Colonial aims 1 . Germany should not be allowed to retain any of its’ overseas territory 2. Desired parts of the Ottoman empire. Namely, access to the Mogul oil fields and Lebanon. Reparation aims 1 . Wanted a huge indemnity on Germany as a means of punishment. The indemnity should be so big that Germany pays for all the damage done to France, and for the debt France owed to Britain and USA Military aims 1. Limit the German military so that future attacks were impossible 2.

Military alliance with Great Britain and the United States of America Japanese Aims Wanted recognition for its dominant position in China Possession of the areas previously owned by Germany in China and the pacific Racial equality in the Paris Peace settlements To be one of the major powers Secure a large economically strong empire for security purposes. Italian Aims Prerequisites for the aims promised a lot Of territory if they won by the Allied Powers in 1915 in the Treaty of London which made them join the war. Small success in the War militarily, meaning that they had heavy casualties with small gains to show for it.

The aims themselves 1 Wanted all the areas promised in the London-treaty (expense of Austria- Hungary and colonies in the former Ottoman Empire) which conflicted the principle of self-determination. 2. Wanted to be the protector of Albania and thereby gaining control of Albanian foreign policy and resources. 3. Reparations from Austria-Hungary. The different Paris peace treaties and their impacts Treaty of Versailles The treaty of Versailles is arguably the most important treaty that came out of the Paris peace negotiations. It was the one that dealt with how Germany should be handled.

Many of the Key clauses in the treaty Were Only met when the conference held seemed to be on the brink of collapse as a compromise twine all the main participants. The different clauses can be divided into 5 general categories, (Covenant of the League of Nations, War guilt clause, reparations, territorial adjustments, and disarmament. THE COVENANT OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS The 26 first articles in the Paris Peace Treaties were the covenant of the League. They stated that the League were to be an independent organization of composed of independent states that would cooperate to make the promote peace through negotiating.

Articles 8-17 The heart Of the Covenant, concerned with prevention of War. Stated that all embers had to disarm to lowest point of national safety. Articles 12-17 The process for solving international disputes been countries was proposed. Arbitration C] Condemnation D Sanctions (could mean attack on aggressor nation) Collective security decided in article 16 in order to make aggressor nations resort to negotiation and arbitration. The remaining articles stated that the league would work to abolish slavery, human and drug trafficking, and diseases (LOL hut? ).

Work towards religious freedom but denied the article about racial equality in the treaties demanded by China and Japan. WAR GUILT CLAUSE Article 231 Germany were not allowed to attend the negotiations. It was a universal agreement between the victorious powers that Germany and her allies in the War were to get the blame for the outbreak of the war. Morally justified the reparations given in the reparations articles. REPARATIONS How much did the US want Germany to pay? Believed that a too huge demand for reparation moneys would lead to resentment and yet another war in the distant future.

Therefore, USA wanted Germany to pay a fixed amount of $22 billion How much did Britain want Germany to Pay? Divided on the issue. In the very least, Germany should pay for the British war pensions. However, public opinion also wanted Germany to pay for the war as a whole. Britain’s Dominions wanted to gain War pensions as well and thus demanded more from Germany. Due to Britain’s huge debt to the US, they needed France to pay their debt to Britain, but in order for that to happen, they needed huge reparations from Germany.

Prime minister Lloyd George did not want a sum too high to avoid inhibiting the stabilization of the German economy, but he wanted them to pay enough to inhibit rebuilding of a German military. Estimated sum of $1 20 billion. How much did France want Germany to Pay? Needed reparations that could pay their debt and also cover the damages done in Northern France, and war pensions. In addition, they wanted to punish Germany bad through the reparations. Estimated sum of $220 billion. The reparation commission. A commission that was to analyze the German economy and by May 1 1921 asses how much Germany could afford to pay.

Meanwhile, Germany was to make an interim payment of 20 billion gold marks and raise another 60 million through loans. Of this money, France would receive just over half of it, and Britain a quarter, and Belgium the rest. TERRITORIAL ADJUSTMENTS Minor changes Schlesinger back to Denmark, and a plebiscite was held to determine how much was to be given back to Denmark Peen, Malted, and Moroseness were to hold plebiscites to see if they should be given back to Belgium. Laces- Lorraine Back to France, no questions asked. The Sara France would get control over the coalmines for 1 5 years while the government of the Sara would be left to the League.

After 15 years, the people could hold a plebiscite to decide if they wanted to be a part of Germany, or France (they chose Germany, huge victory for Hitter’s campaign) The Rangeland Was to be occupied by Allied Powers only for Fifteen years in return for the Anglo-American guarantee. After the 15 years, Rangeland was to BEA permanent demoralized zone. Poland and Eastern Europe. Germany gained a lot of Russian area in the treaty of Brest-Litotes. However, the treaty of Versailles article 1 18 stated that Germany was no longer allowed to keep any of the benefits from victory against Russia.

It was recommended that Poland should get Dancing, Marinades and Upper Sillies from German territory. This would give it access to the sea as well as some industrialized areas. Lloyd George did not agree to this and foresaw that Germany would turn to Communist Russia for help regarding this sit in the future. He made Clemencies agree that Marinades should hold a plebiscite, and Dancing should be formed to a free trade area with Poland. This created the polish Corridor which separated parts of Germany from Eastern-Prussia region.

Austria Austria-Hungary was dissolved and the 14 points specifically stated that their people could form nations as they saw fit. This lead to people of Austria joining Germany in the German republic of Austria France and Britain hated his and said that the two countries were not allowed to unify. German colonies Germany lost all of them to the League as mediators (South Africa) or Mandates (pacific) Japan ended up with the colonies in China after some stuff happened between Wilson and the other people. DISARMAMENT Germany’s army was reduced to 100. 000 men and not an army of conscripts.

No artillery, air force, poison gas, tanks, or submarines for Germany. Six battleships at a time. French General Foci was all like: “this will make an elite army in Germany that are so good that they can expand the army quickly and sufficiently when the hence arises” He was correct. GERMAN REACTION TO THE TREATY Dye were angry you know. It did not follow the 14 points Whilst criticizing they tried to negotiate. They wanted Immediate membership Of the league Guarantee that Austria and the ethnic Germans in Czechoslovakia has the right to decide where they want to live.

Plebiscites in all the areas that were granted to Poland in the treaty. A neutral commission that would examine the war guilt question. No foreign troops in German Territory. The Allied Powers meant that these demands, if met, would strengthen the German’s position in Europe, so they be like, nah. However, they did agree to some demands. A plebiscite was held in Upper-Sillies If Germany proved over a longer period of time that they would be nice, the occupation of Rangeland would be called off earlier than normal.

US REJECTION OF THE TREAT;r’ Lloyd George and Clemencies represented the majority of their parliaments and could therefore sign the treaty themselves with no problems as they negotiated in the mind of their own political party. Woodrow Wilson however, was a democrat in a senate with a majority of Republicans. Therefore, he could not sign it as the majority of the IIS parliament was against the treaty nice it was negotiated with the ideologies of a democrat. Why they rejected the Treaty. Did not want an obligation to defend other countries through war.

Not happy that the Japanese got the Shank Tuning peninsula provinces or that Britain and France were allowed to expand in Africa and the Middle-East as this would inhibit the expansion of democratic governments in these regions. They worried that participation in the league would lead to a compromise of the Monroe doctrine that banned Europe to interfere in Central and South Africa. Treaty of SST. Germane This is the treaty that dealt with Austria. Was primarily the work Of professional diplomats. Included the covenant of the League in the first 26 articles.

Dealt with: Reparations War guilt Territorial adjustments Disarmament WAR GUILT CLAUSE Austria had to accept responsibility for the outbreak of the war as it was a part of Austria-Hungary. Then reparations could be demanded. A committee was established to analyze Australia’s economy to see how much Austria could pay. They understood that it would be hard for Austria to pay too huge sums of money. Therefore, Austria had to pay a certain sum to Italy and other allied nations around Austria. In addition, they had to pay with large numbers of livestock to Italy, Yugoslavia, and Romania.

They should also give back cultural treasures to the nations which they originated from. Italy also got some underwater cables in the Adriatic Sea. TERRITORY Officially ended the Status-Hungarian empire. Confirmed creation of new states on the expense of the old empire. Confirmed the Republic of Austria which was now to be a small, German speaking nation of about 6 million inhabitants. Austria and Germany was not allowed to unite despite the interests of their governments. This gave France he power to veto any change regarding those two, as they had to ask the ague if they wanted to change their status.

The other parts of Austria was to be distributed between Italy, Yugoslavia, Poland, Romania, and Czechoslovakia. What did Italy get? South Tyro. Home of 230,000 ethnic Germans. The Strain peninsula and other islands in the Adriatic sea. The important port of Tries which that Cut of Austria from a seaport naturally audio What did Czechoslovakia get? Provinces of Bohemia and Moravia which again contained several (3 mill) Germans in them. But any objection from Britain or LISA regarding the overhanging of the provinces was met with an angry little Clemencies What did Yugoslavia, Poland and Romania get?

Slovenia, Bosnia-Herringbone and Dalmatian was given to Yugoslavia which many Slovenes rejected. The treaty then allowed the German speaking Slovenes to have a plebiscite which was held in 1 920 and decided that they should be a part of Austria. Galatia and Bouzouki was given to Poland and Romania. Austria limited to an army of 30,000 men. No conscription Only one factory in the entire nation was allowed to produce replacement weapons and munitions. Prohibition of export and import of any weapons and munitions. No air force and navy. Austria had no access to the sea due to the territorial adjustments so the Allies just took their ships.

TREATY OF UNLIKELY This is the treaty that dealt with Bulgaria. Bulgaria was seen as an enemy in the eyes of Britain and France. An enemy that threatened the stability of the Balkan region. Italy and USA wanted to treat Bulgaria not so harsh, but France and Britain weren’t having’ any 0′ data. Dealt with the same sit as the others and had the covenant of the League in the first 26 articles. WAR GUILT & REPARATIONS Bulgaria did not have to sign to state that they caused the outbreak of the AR, but they had to proclaim and admit that they had caused a lot of damage and loss of life to the Allies.

Set to make a payment of appear. DIDO million. This should be paid in equal sums twice per year for 37 years with a 5% interest rate. Lost 2500 square kilometers of western Bulgaria to Yugoslavia which made the Mug-Bulgarian border closer to the Bulgarian capital. Lost area of Southern Dobra was given to Romania. There lived only 7000 Rumanians there, and 250,000 Bulgarians there. Reduced to 20,000 men. No conscription Only 33,000 rifles in the entire country at any given time. Only one factory to reduce armory and munitions.

No air force and no Submarines 4 torpedo boats only and 6 motor boats with no torpedoes. No export or import of military equipment Treaty of Titration This is the treaty that dealt with the former kingdom of Hungary. This treaty was signed in 1 920 as opposed to the others that were signed in 1919. The reason for this is that there was a Bolshevik inspired revolution in Hungary in 191 9 and crushed at once. Hungary contained many nationalities that made it hard to separate Hungary fairly. Villages that were located near each other could speak completely different languages.

Nevertheless, Hungary had to lose stuff, and Yugoslavia and Romania wanted some o’ data big 01′ beef o’ honey. Then same stuff as the other treaties. Covenant, league, all of data. WAR GUILT AND REPARATIONS Had to agree in article 161 one that, as a part of the Dual Monarchy, it was responsible for the start of the war. Got the exact same reparations stuff as in the treaty of SST. Germane except to different countries. This treaty lead Hungary to lose 72% of their land and 64% of its total population. 30% of the ethnic Hungarian would find themselves living in other countries. USA first resented this.

However, Romania was promised Transylvania in a secret treaty between them and Britain and France if they attacked Hungary during the war. That and the fact that a lot of Hungary was occupied by troops that were not willing to let go caused Wilson to give in. The actual losses Slovakia and Ruthenium was given to Czechoslovakia which meant that the former capital of Hungary was in another country now as well as just about 1 million Hungarian. Croatia and Slavonic left when Hungary was falling apart and joined Yugoslavia They also lost some ports which made them lose sea access consequently limiting its ability to trade. Insanity, a very rich area, was given to Romania. No plebiscites were held. Limited to army of 35,000 men. NO conscription No poison gas, flamethrowers or tanks. No air force and planes that belonged to Germany previously was confiscated to the allies. No export or import of military goods. Treaty of Severe This treaty dealt with the remains of the Ottoman Empire, Turkey. The complications that arrived from the negotiation of the treaty of Severe is the different views of Lloyd George and Clemencies regarding the matter. Lloyd George was prepared to crush Turkey by depriving it of its capital

Constantinople, and its control over the Bosporus strait. In addition, he wanted them to surrender all territory where there were no Turkish minority as he considered Greece as a good ally of Britain. However, France had some pre-war investments in the country. Concerned of these investments, France wanted to preserve a healthy Turkey. Because of this, France wanted Turkey to continue to rule over Constantinople. The end result was not good, and ended up as a rather humiliating treaty. Then the same stuff as with the other treaties. Almost the same as with Bulgaria in the treaty of Unlikely.

However, Turkey was so beaten up that the Allied did not demand any direct reparations, but instead wanted to control all of Turkeys state finances, banking and currency rates. The Ottoman Empire proved difficult to divide by ethnic lines as it was a vast empire of many nationalities. Constantinople ended up as a Turkish city in the treaty. The Darkness and the Bosporus strait was to be under international control to secure free access for ships to go through. The division of the Ottoman Empire What did Greece get? Allowed to establish a parliament in the Gizmo area and administer themselves here.

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