American History Notes
The National Bank had been used as the main bank of the national overspent and major businesses since 1789. President Madison closed it briefly during the War of 1 812, but he reopened it again after the war ended. Every 20 years, Congress was required to approve a charter for a National Bank. In 1 836, Congress approved a charter for a Second National Bank. What do you think President Andrew Jackson did about it? He vetoed it. Why? He believed that the bank favored the wealthy people in society. He wanted to help the ordinary American people, especially the farmers.
Therefore, he closed the National Bank and put the money into state banks that became now as “pet banks. ” He thought the money would be more helpful to the ordinary people if it were available on a state level. L- Indian Removal Act of 1830. Congress passed this law that required five Native-American tribes to relocate from their homelands in the southeastern part of the United States to the land that is present-day Oklahoma. When Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, it became law. The five Native-American Tribes continued to march to their new home, with their U.
S. Army escort, throughout the entire period of Andrew Jackson’s administration, and even into the next resident’s administration. T, Tariff of 1832 or the “Tariff of Abominations. ” The North supported the tariff because it gave the federal government more money to invest in transportation systems that helped the businesses that were located in the North. The South did not support the Tariff of 1832 for two reasons. First, Southerners saw the money from the tariff financing the transportation improvements for the North.
The South did not need new roads, railroads, and canals because they used the rivers to transport their cotton. Second, the South traded cotton for products from Great Britain. Southerners felt they were being punished because they would be required to pay more for the large number of products they imported. The South threatened to secede over this tariff issue. S- “Spoils System” that Andrew Jackson promoted. He dedicated himself to elevating the ordinary man in society. He wanted everyone to benefit from living in America, and he thought that, as president, he could help the ordinary person.
Therefore, he rewarded his voters with political favors, which were often government jobs. KEY TERMS Jackson Democracy- period of Andrew Jackson’s administration when the saws favored ordinary Americans and ordinary Americans held political power. Second Bank of the United States- bank used by federal government and big businesses; chartered by Congress every 20 years; Andrew Jackson vetoed the charter for a Second Bank of the United States that Congress approved. John C. Calhoun- Vice President of the United States under Andrew Jackson who resigned over the nullification crisis. Life- to declare that a state is not required to obey a federal law because it is unconstitutional. Interchangeable parts- the concept that quantities of one type of product are dad with identical parts so they can be made and repaired quickly and easily. Trail of Tears- forced march of 1 6,000 Cherokee from their homeland in Georgia to the present-day state of Oklahoma; 4,000 died on the journey; President Van Burden carried out the Indian Removal Act of 1 830 in the winter of 1838-39. Sequoia- Native American member of the Cherokee tribe who put oral Cherokee language into a written form. Canonical reaper- machine that cut as much grain as fast as five men cut it by hand; invented by Cyrus McCormick; today, all machines for cutting wheat are modeled after the paper; made the Midwest, the grain-producing capital of the world. Worcester v. Georgia- Supreme Court Decision which said that Georgia could not take Cherokee land. States’ rights- belief that states should have more rights than the federal government. Eli Whitney- invented the cotton gin and the concept of interchangeable parts.
Indian Removal Act of 1830- law that called for the relocation of five Native American tribes from their homelands in the southeastern united States to the area that is the present-day state of Oklahoma. Nullification crisis- South Carolina’s attempt not to obey the deader Tariff of 1832 and its threat to secede if the federal government tried to force the state’s citizens to obey the law. Telegraph- first long-distance communication system; sent messages using electricity through wires; invented by Samuel F-. B. Morse.
Daguerreotypes- name of the first photographs; named for Jacques Daggered, the French inventor of the photographic process. Democratic Party- political party created by Andrew Jackson and his supporters. Adams and his supporters became National Republicans. Later would become the Democratic Party. In the asses voting restrictions in many tastes-?such as the requirement for property ownership-?were being lifted, allowing poor people to become voters. These new voters were strong Jackson supporters. Jackson won the election of 1828 against unpopular Adams.
One of his first acts was to replace many officials with his supporters. Replaced about 1 in 10 officials. (spoils system). By the time Andrew Jackson became president, the land east Of the Mississippi River was largely settled by white Americans. In the Southeast, however, huge expanses of land were still controlled by Native American groups. Five major Native American groups ivied in the southeastern United States: the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaws, Seminole, and Creek. Many had adopted aspects of European and American culture. Cherokee learned English, built towns, established written constitution.
Many Americans still saw them as inferior. Farmland was becoming scarce in the East, white settlers coveted Indian land. Indian Removal Act of 1830. 1/4 died. Cherokee fought in court, declaring themselves a foreign country and demanding respect. John Marshall ruled that they were neither citizens nor a foreign country, dismissed the case. Cherokees had a white friend named Samuel Austin Worcester. He was ordered to leave Cherokee land by the state of Georgia. Refused and brought the case to court on behalf of himself and the Cherokees. Worcester v. Georgia. 832 Marshall ruled against Georgia, denying them the right to take Cherokee lands. Jackson outraged. To get around the Courts ruling government officials signed a treaty with Cherokee leaders who favored relocation, even though they did not represent most of the Cherokee people. Under this treaty, the Cherokee were herded by the U. S. Army, like the other nations before them, on a long and deadly march West. Of the 16,000 Cherokee forced to leave their homes, about 4,000 died on the march to the Indian Territory. Second Bank of the United States, a national bank overseen by the federal government.
Congress established the Bank in 181 6 and gave it a 20- year charter. The purpose of the Bank was to regulate state banks, which had grown rapidly since the First Bank of the United States went out of existence in 181 1 . Jackson and other Americans strongly opposed the Second Bank of the United States. They thought that the Constitution did not give Congress the authority to create it in the first place. Opponents recognized that state banks were more inclined to make loans to poorer farmers in the South and West-?the very people who supported Jackson.
National bank seemed more devoted to interests Of wealthy northern corporations. 1832 Henry Clay and Daniel Webster (opponents of Jackson) proposed a bill to renew the bank’s charter. During election year. Hoped that Jackson’s opposition would hurt his chances at being reelected. Jackson vetoed it. Clay challenged Jackson for presidency. Jackson won. Jackson ordered his secretary of the Treasury to take the money out of the Bank and deposit it in select state banks. Critics called these banks “pet banks” because they were loyal to Jackson.
Nicholas Fiddle, the president of the Second Bank of the United States, opposed the pet-bank initiative, but there was little he could do. In 1 836 the Second Bank of the United States was reduced to just another state bank. Those who favored giving more power to the states invoked the concept of states’ rights, based on the Tenth Amendment’s provision that powers “not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States” are reserved to the States. In 181 6 Congress passed a tariff on British manufactured goods.
It raised the tariff in 1824 and 1828. The tariff was welcomed by industry leaders of the northern states. Because the tariff increased the price of British goods, it encouraged Americans to buy American goods. The agricultural southern states despised the tariff. It forced southerners to buy northern goods instead of the less expensive British goods they were accustomed to. Moreover, southern cotton growers, who exported most of their crop to Britain, opposed interference with international trade.
The controversy over the tariff helped drive a wedge between Jackson and his vice president, John C. Calhoun. (southerner) Southerners called it the Tariff of Abominations. Calhoun advanced the idea of nullification. The issue of nullification and states’ rights was the focus of one of the most famous debates in Senate history. It took place in 1830 between Senator Robert Haynes of South Carolina and Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts. Haynes maintained that the federal government was a impact, or agreement, among the states.
Nullification, he said, gave states a lawful way to protest federal legislation. Webster responded that the United States was one nation, not merely an agreement of states. His impassioned reply ended with the words, “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable! ” The thundering defense of the Union made Webster a nationally famous figure overnight. 1832 Congress passed another tariff. Nullification theory put to the test. South Carolina declared the tariff null and void and threatened to secede. (nullification crisis).