Chapter 8- A.P History Midterm Review

-New France? · 1698 – exploration led by Samuel de Champlain? o Settlements by Quebec along the St. Lawrence River ? · Befriended many tribes? o Montagnais + Hurons = tribes that allied with French? · Alliances with tribes in the St. Lawrence led to battles with the Iroquois? o France played an effective role in keeping peace to ensure the security of New France ? · Jesuits- missionaries that forced Christianity down the Indian’s throats? -Development of New France? · King Louis XIV disbanded the Company of New France and ruled the colony directly? · Ruled by two royal appointees:? A governor in charge of military and diplomatic affairs? o Intendant who oversaw colonial finances and the judicial system ? · Rumors of Canadian Winters and Indian Surprise attacks led to a low rate of population growth? -Dutch Trading? · Dutch exploration driven by profit? · 1600 – Dutch = leading economic power in Europe? · Amsterdam was a key financial capital? o Bank of Amsterdam founded in 1609? · Bulk goods shipped from the Baltic countries:? o Grain, salt, lumber, fish? · Mediterranean luxury products:? o Sugar, dyestuffs, wine? · 1602 – Dutch East India Company ? Challenged Portuguese’s monopoly of Asian trading? · 1st success = capture of Spice Islands? · Established trading posts on the Gold Coast of West Africa + Africa’s Southern tip? o Competed with Portuguese slave trade ? · These actions solidified Dutch trading for decades? -New Netherland? · 1621- West India Company: set up by Dutch to become more involved in the New World? · Moved into the Caribbean and North America (for trading purposes)? · Claimed Connecticut, Hudson, and Delaware Valleys? o Courtesy of Henry Hudson explorations ? · Economic focus was fur trade? 1630’s- West India Company offered large estates of land (patroonships) to wealthy Dutchmen to help supply colonial traders? · The Dutchmen would populate the land with tenant farmers? · New Netherland was known for its religious diversity? -Joint Stock Companies? · 1606- Two Companies funding the settlement of New World ? o London (or Virginia) Company – which included merchants from the city of London? o Plymouth Company – which included merchants from England’s western ports.? · James I granted the Companies two tracks of land along the mid-Atlantic Coast? -Jamestown/ House of Burgesses? 104 men on 3 ships sailed to the mouth of the Chesapeake bay in May 1607? · marsh and swamp areas led to mosquitoes carrying malaria? · Settlers neglected to plant crops and instead searched for gold? · When no gold was found the settlers had no source of food? · John Smith was wounded and brought back to England? o During his absence the colony nearly disintegrated? · Shiploads of men would arrive only to starve and die? · 1616- Headright system was established? o 50 acres of land for every man that came to the colony? o 50 more for every person they brought with them ? 1616 House of Burgesses was established ? o Landowners would elect members into the House? o The House would make laws for Virginia ? -Importance of Tobacco in the Chesapeake? · Began growing tobacco during search of a marketable product after 1610? · Europeans developed a taste for tobacco from Spain who brought it from the West ? -Puritans and Separatists? · Separatists were Puritans (extreme level)? · Separatists could not reform the Church of England so they became a separate religion? · Puritans goal was to “purify” the Church of England? -John Winthrop’s “A Model of Christian Charity”? 1629- Massachusetts Bay Colony = City upon a hill? · To vote in the town you did not have to be a saint? o Becoming a saint became easier? · Bicameral system of gov’t? o Upper house = 18 members? o Lower House = Represents Towns (saints/ deputy gov)? · Town meetings were lead by local male land owners? · Idea Behind the City Upon a Hill? o Be a beacon/ model for other nearby towns? o Look up on the hill to see a perfect religious community? o (On a hill you are closer to God)? -Pequot War? · Puritans from Massachusetts Bay Colony vs. Pequot Indians? · Scared Natives away? First experience of vicious warfare Chapter 3 I. Indians and Europeans Relationships between Europeans and Indians depended on the intentions of the European power. A. Indian Workers in the Spanish Borderlands Spanish took Indians right from their villages and re-located them. Spanish sought direct control over Indians who labored in their mines and fields. Indian workers greatly outnumbered the Spanish, used military force to keep them in line. Encomienda- grant given to a noble or influential Spaniard, which gives them the right to collect tribute for natives living on a specific piece of land.

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Indians usually paid off the land with corn, hides, or blankets, but later the payment turned into labor. Repartimiento- a mandatory draft of Indian labor for public projects. Rescate- ransoming captives that Indian groups seized for one another. Indians resented Spanish strategies for controlling Indian labor. Late 17th century; long-standing native anger burst forth in rebellion. B. The Web of Trade French trade with the Indians prospered for both peoples; French usually traded for beaver pelts. Trading did spread diseases through out Indian population; responsible for a lot of deaths.

French extended credit to Indians, which allowed them to take control of the fur trading. The credit put the Indians in debt to the French, but the Indians became reliant on European manufacturers. “Mourning wars”, Indian raids on other Indian villages to seize captives. 1640:Beaver Wars- struggle between Iroquois and Hurons both hunted beaver; Iroquois raided Hurons’ villages to find something to trade (beaver population was dying out) Iroquois destroyed Hurons because the Dutch supplied the Iroquois with guns and the French were reluctant to arm the Hurons. C.

Displacing Native Americans in the English Colonies When the English ventured over, they thought that all the land was up for grabs. Both peoples had problems in determining what land belonged to whom. Colonial activities negatively affected the Indians way of life. Europeans also acquired land by purchasing it for the Indian tribes; such as Roger Williams in Rhode Island and William Penn of Pennsylvania. Colonials seized land in the aftermath of war. D. Bringing Christianity to Native Peoples Spanish brought Franciscan priests to their lands to convert Indians.

Indians began to question their own gods. Many natives continued to practice their own rituals in secret. French Jesuits also tried to convert Indians in Canada. Tried to impress the Indians, so they would convert. Protestant English were not successful in attracting Indians- little allure for the Indians E. After the first Hundred Years: Conflict and War Violence between Indians and Europeans erupted in all 3 North American empires: King Phillip’s War in New England Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico Beaver Wars in New France

King Philip’s War Indians: Wampanoags Metacom: called King Philip by the English, led the Wampanoags in war to try to preserve their independence War started when English hanged 3 Natives (they supposedly killed an Indian Christian); and the colonists killed an Indian they found looting in an abandoned house Natives got within 20 miles of Boston, but they were plagued by disease and famine Philip died in an ambush in August 1676, and the war ended soon after Casualties: 3,000 colonists; 1,000 colonists Natives that remained were sold into slavery

Philip’s head was mounted on a stake and left outside Plymouth as a warning not to resist colonial expansion Bacon’s Rebellion Established planters owned all the good land New settlers wanted land so they attacked the neighboring Susquehannocks The Natives responded back so they went to war Governor Berkeley ordered Bacon and his men to stop fighting, but the colonists turned on the government It became a war of settlers against colonial authority The settlers captured Jamestown, but all they wanted was to exterminate the Indians.

They turned their aggression towards the Indians and massacred them By the time troops arrived from England to put down the rebellion, Bacon dies and most of his men drifted home Powhatans lost much of their land and people, they were devastated Pueblo Revolt 20,000 Pueblos were ruled by 2,500 Spanish Spaniards tried to eliminate the Pueblo Indians religion Spaniards arrested 47 native religious leaders Pope: Pueblo leader Pueblos attacked the settlers All surviving Spaniards fled to New Mexico 13 years later, the Spanish came back, but did not want to fight with them; they did not question their religion.

Beaver Wars between French and Iroquois for land, control beavers Iroquois remained neutral among French and British affairs II. Africans and Europeans Over 12 million Africans had arrived in America; ended in 1888 A. Labor Needs and Turn to Slavery Land was cheap, but labor was expensive(opposite in Europe) Why would people want to work on someone else’s land when they could have their own land? High cost of labor led to slavery. Europeans encouraged Indians to make war among themselves in order to get more slaves Indian slaves were disease prone and knew the land, so they could escape; turned to Africans B.

The Shock of Enslavement Africans themselves provided slaves, fought with each other so their own people would not have to go Classes diminished because everyone could become a slave Middle Passage: 6 to 8 month journey to the Americas Triangle Trade- Europe sent rum and guns to Africa, Africa sent slaves to the New World, and the New World provided Europe with raw materials and rum 5% to 20% of slaves perished from disease on the voyage. C. African Slaves in the New World Slavery did not become widespread in English colonies Why slaves were used

White indentured servants became harder to find, fewer people immigrated to the New World African slaves became more accessible Slaves were also a better long term investment: got both men and women: self-reproducing labor force Slaves grew rapidly because it answered the needs of planters Northern slaves were not as abundant as southern slaves. Slaves often found in cities, especially ports. Urban slaves worked as domestic servants and artisans Anthony Johnson- a Virginian slave that bought his freedom He belonged to the first generation of slaves

Free black slaves did not have rights and were not wanted in slave communities (they would provoke other slaves to try to be free) New laws were formed concerning slaves: Slave Codes Owners had the right to kill their slaves Slavery was defined as life-long and was inherited Slaves could not testify against white people in court D. African American Families and Communities Development of Slave Societies Because of different languages and cultures, the formation of African American communities was delayed into the 18th century In north, slaves lived alone

In Tidewater south, slaves were so numerous that societies formed quickly Most of a slave’s life was structured by work After finishing his/her job, domestic duties began Community life helped keep African culture alive Not many Africans converted to Christianity E. Resistance and Rebellion Europeans paid Indians to return run-away slaves to their owners Also resisted slavery by civil disobedience Organized rebellions were rare. III. European Laborers in Early America Pg. 91 shows immigration by nationality in English colonies, pg. 2 shows location of ethnic groups. Redemptioner system- brought Europeans to America for free, and they would pay once they got here. (family already in America could help pay) If they did not pay, they were sold into servitude. Fishers were in debt to merchants, expensive equipment and not always a good catch of fish. Owned, but unoccupied land was worked by tenants. Young children worked on their family farms, as young as 5-6 Fathers kept sons working as long as possible Chapter 4 • William Byrd’s diary, “Manners and Etiquette in the 18th century?

Byrd represented a large fraction of American Colonists that were intent upon becoming living counterparts to their ancestors who had lived in England. Though Byrd read many descriptions of the typical life of an Englishmen, his representation was still not up to par with actually living life in England. ?• Mercantilism? As England, Holland, and France competed for economic dominance, England decided to improve its competitive position by adopting mercantilism. Their goal was to achieve a favorable balance of trade within the empire by exporting more goods than they imported.

The colonies played a crucial role in this because they provided the commodities that England would have otherwise had to purchase from foreign competitors. (Navigation Acts, enumerated products)? • Colonial imports and exports and their effects on domestic society and the Empire? Very profitable goods such as tobacco and sugar originating in the colonies, made large profits in European markets during this time. Parliament repealed many laws to allow for the direct shipment to European nations. The massive exports of the colonies provided for a time of wealth and prosperity.? Imports, expanding credit and growing class issues between rich and poor? Over four million euros worth of English imports flowed into the colonies each year. These imports were much sought after for they could not be produced cheaply enough to be made in the colonies. Much of the products imported were made of raw materials that originated in the colonies.? Credit was extended by British merchants graciously and planters happily accepted the luxuries that came with living on credit, expecting to pay off their debts with the following year’s profit.

However, in international crises or slumps in tobacco prices colonial debtors realized how much they depended upon the credit that had been extended by English Merchants.? • Early American culture modeled after England? The growth of cities in the colonies made them strikingly resemble the structure of England. However, wherever there is heavy commercial activity, which usually takes place in cities, the gap between the rich and the poor continuously widens.? • Enlightenment effects on American society?

Educated colonists were interested in ideas characterized by the Age of Enlightenment, in which European thinkers drew inspiration from recent advancements in science. These thinkers soon came to reject old beliefs such as topics concerning God and began to think of Him as less of an active role as the creator of the universe. The Enlightenment also resulted in Ben Franklin’s famous experiments concerning electricity.? • The Great Awakening and New Lights v. Old Lights?

The principal adaptation consisted of a move away from strict requirements for church membership. In order to keep their churches pure, New England’s founders had required prospective members to give convincing evidence that they had experienced a spiritual conversion before they could receive communion and have their children baptized. By the 166os, however, fewer colonists sought admission under such strict standards, which left them and their un-baptized children outside the church. To address this problem, the clergy in 1662 adopted the Halfway Covenant.

This allowed adults who had been baptized (because their Parents were church members), but who had not themselves experienced conversion, to have their own children baptized. The Halfway Covenant slowly gained acceptance and by the 1680s, some ministers made church admission even easier, requiring members only to demonstrate knowledge of the Christian faith and to live godly lives. ?The Great Awakening can best be described as a revitalization of religious piety that swept through the American colonies between the 1730s and the 1770s.

That revival was part of a much broader movement, an evangelical upsurge taking place simultaneously on the other side of the Atlantic, most notably in England, Scotland, and Germany. In all these Protestant cultures during the middle decades of the eighteenth century, a new Age of Faith rose to counter the currents of the Age of Enlightenment, to reaffirm the view that being truly religious meant trusting the heart rather than the head, prizing feeling more than thinking, and relying on biblical revelation rather than human reason.

In emotionally charged sermons, all the more powerful because they were delivered extemporaneously, preachers like Jonathan Edwards evoked vivid, terrifying images of the utter corruption of human nature and the terrors awaiting the unrepentant in hell.? • Dominion of New England and the beginning of the end of Puritan control in New England? Before 1650, the colonies in North America had been mostly self-governing, however when Charles II became king in 1660, he began to stride towards changes in the colonies. The territory he created territory comprised of northeastern American colonies.

It included Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, East Jersey, West Jersey, New York, Plymouth, and Rhode Island. A lack of control over New England and the fear that the colonies would not be able to defend themselves against France if disconnected prompted England to consolidate them. But colonists had no voice in government, and most opposed the dominion. Sir Edmund Andros was named the governor of this Dominion by the king. An experienced soldier and dedicated public servant, Andros nevertheless lacked the common sense and personal skills to be successful in his new position.

He followed his orders assiduously by terminating local assemblies, taxing the colonists without the consent of their representatives, and vigorously attempting to end smuggling through strict enforcement of the Navigation Acts. The breakup of the dominion in 1689 was aided by the revolution a year before in England that overthrew James II.? • Effects of the Glorious Revolution on the colonies? It showed the Americans that the ruler, if corrupt, can be overthrown. It set a precedent for the colonies when they separated from the King’s rule.

The overthrow of Andros resulted in a few years of anarchy among the New England Colonies, and in such events as the Salem Witch Trials.? • Virtual and Actual representation? Virtual- the belief that representatives served the interests of the nation as a whole, not the locality they originated in. Most English politicians supported this kind of representation. ?Actual- the idea that elected representatives should be directly responsive to local interests? • British – French conflict in the late 17th and throughout the 18th centuries and their effects on the colonies?

French expansion along the Mississippi Valley drove a wedge between Florida and Spain’s other mainland colonies; it also blocked the westward movement of English settlers. But France’s enlarged empire was only as strong as the Indian alliances on which it rested. Preserving good relations was expensive, however, requiring the constant exchange of diplomatic gifts and trade goods. When France ordered Louisiana officials to limit expenses and reduce Indian gifts in the officials objected that the Choctaws “would ask for nothing better than to have such pretexts in order to resort to the English. ? • Development of country ideology? Country ideology stressed the threats that a standing army and a powerful state posed to personal liberty. It also emphasized the dangers of taxation to personal rights and the need for property holders to retain their right to consent to taxation. Real Whigs denounced this powerful state as the enemy of liberty, stressed the dangers of standing armies, and insisted that consent to taxation was the property holder’s sole bulwark against “enslavement” by would? be tyrants in the government. Country” ideology dominated the language of political opposition, but barely slowed the growth of the state. Each war’s demands—and the stability of a securities market underwritten by tax monies –overrode the objections of those who feared expansion of state power.? • The French and Indian War? The French and Indian War was the North American phase of a war between France and Britain to control colonial territory. The French and Indian War was a seven-year war between England and the American colonies, against the French and some of the Indians in North America.

When the war ended, France was no longer in control of Canada. The Indians that had been threatening the American colonists were defeated. This war had become a world war. Great Britain spent a great deal of money fighting the war and colonists fully participated in this war. Both these facts were to have a profound effect on the future of the colonies. Chapter 5 Fallout after the French and Indian War England emerged from the French and Indian war with an immense national debt of $146 million. They also had a vast territory to administer stretching from Hudson Bay in Canada to the Mississippi River.

Spain began to establish settlements in California in 1769, but these were too weak to cause any contention. France would be eager for revenge and inhabitants in acquired territories might prove to be disloyal to the British and cause conflict. England had the challenge of setting up government in the new territories. Taxed colonists horribly Proclamation of 1763: Established Civilian governments in East and West Florida, but Canada remained under military rule. It temporarily forbid white settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains to keep whites and Indians separate and to make it easier to govern the colonies.

Reaction: Provoked resentment because it threatened to deprive settlers and speculators in the rapidly developing colonies of the land that they wanted. Some just ignored the restriction and got removed by force. Quartering Acts: Required colonial assemblies to provide barracks and certain supplies for the British soldiers, who were even in the colonies during peacetime Reaction: Presence of troops during peacetime alarmed Americans, and wondered if they were there to protect them or rather to coerce them. They objected with the burden of housing the troops in the colonies. Sugar Act: Also called the American Revenue Act, passed in 1764 by the British Parliament under Prime Minister George Grenville. The main purpose was to generate funds. It combined new and revised duties on colonial imports with strict provisions for collecting these impositions. Lowered the duty on Molasses from the French West Indies from 6 pence to 3 pence a gallon… it also lengthened the list of enumerated products, goods that could be sent only to England. It required ships carry elaborate paperwork to prevent illegal trade with other countries.

The British government gave the responsibility of the British Royal Navy to seize smugglers ships, and the trying of violations were to be held in Vice-Admiralty courts in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Reaction: Americans opposed the idea that Vice-Admiralty courts had no jury, and the location of them in Nova Scotia, until the British created branches in Boston, Philadelphia and Charleston. Cherokee War: Took place in the southern Appalachian Mountains, the Cherokees who were long allies of the British, were getting alarmed at the encroachments of their white neighbors onto their land.

In 1759, Indians returning home from a campaign withy the British stole horses belonging to Virginia colonists. They attacked the Indians and killed them. The Cherokees retaliated with attacks on western settlements in the southern colonies in 1760 and captured Fort Loudoun in eastern Tennessee until signing a peace treaty in 1761 agreeing to give up land in the Carolinas and Virginia. Pontiac’s Rebellion: Broke out in 1763 among Indians in the Great Lakes and Ohio valley regions. They feared that the British were planning to exterminate them, take their lands and resented British traders and officials.

These concerns helped to inspire a united effort to resist the British and try to revitalize Indian culture. Pontiac, the leader of one of the major Native American groups, the Ottowas, attacked British forces and American settlers from the Great Lakes to Virginia in 1763. It raged until 1766 when peace negotiations were made. The Indians were eventually forced by the British to give up portions of their territory in return for compensation and guarantees that traditional hunting grounds in the Ohio Valley were theirs. Parson’s Cause: British officials attempted to curb the American legislatures.

Anglican Ministers’ salaries were computed in pounds of tobacco in the 1750s. As a result, when a drought hit, it caused a sharp rise in tobacco prices. The Virginia House of Burgesses restricted their payment to two pence a pound, below the market value of the tobacco. The ministers sued for the unpaid portion of their salaries. The crowns ordered the colony’s (Virginia) governor to not sign or pass any new law that modified existing laws without the King’s approval. Stamp Act: First internal tax passed by Parliament in the spring of 1765. Required all legal ocuments, as well as newspapers, playing cards, and various other papers had to have a government-issued stamp for which their was a charge. It raised a Constitutional issue: Did Parliament have the right to impose direct taxes on Americans when Americans had no elected representatives in Parliament? Reaction: Had an equal impact throughout the colonies, and the response was swift and outspoken. Newspapers were filled with denunciations of the unconstitutional measure. The Sons of Liberty put pressure on stamp distributors and British authorities.?

Non-importation movement: Organized boycotts of British manufactured goods in American cities such as Boston and New York. The goal was to cut into the profits of British employers, inducing them and get the workers laid off as a result to pressure the government to back down. Sons of Liberty: Loosely organized activists that put pressure on stamp distributors and British authorities. They included people from all ranks of society, but mostly from the middle and upper classes. They organized demonstrations in cities, but most of them were more peaceful with tighter discipline.

Townshend Act: Intended to help pay the cost of government in America. It imposed new duties, or external taxes that covered a number of items that the colonists regularly imported: tea, paper, paint, lead and glass. To make sure these duties were collected, the British added a new board of customs commissioners for America in Boston. It seemed to foreshadow greater British interference in colonial affairs. Reaction: Provoked resistance through the colonies. Americans believed that it was the role of their own colonial assemblies to tax themselves, not the British Parliament.

Threatened to undermine their authority. Americans organized a non-importation movement. Many signed lists to buy goods only made in the colonies and not in Great Britain. Boston Massacre: March 5, 1770, British troops fired on American civilians in Boston because they were getting pelted with sticks and stones. Americans complained that the British soldiers insulted them, leered at women and competed for scare jobs. The name “Boston Massacre” was a propagandist term created by Americans. It was far from a Massacre only 5 died.

Tea Act of 1773: Lord North tried to rescue the British East India Company from going bankrupt. It permitted the company to ship tea from its warehouses in Britain without paying the duty normally collected there. Because the tea would be cheaper, the British thought that American would buy it and simultaneously pay the Townshend duty. Reaction: Angered Americans and thought that it was an attempt to trick them into paying the tax on tea. Thousands of men and women decided not to touch the tea, newspapers discussed its dangers to the body. Boston Tea Party: Organized by the Sons of Liberty.

Organized band of men disguised as Indians raced aboard three tea ships, broke open 342 chests of tea and heaved its contents into the harbor.? Coercive Acts/ Intolerable Acts- BAM-Q, for the Intolerable Acts that preceded the revolution (Boston Port Act, Administration of Justice Act, Massachusetts Government Act, Quebec Act) Series of impressive measures passed by an angry Parliament. First of these was the Boston Port Act, which closed the port of Boston to all incoming and outgoing traffic until the British East India Company and the crown receive payment for the destroyed tea and lost duties.

The Administration of Justice Act declared that an official who while performing their duties killed a colonist, could be tried in England, not in the colonies. The Massachusetts Government Act modified the colony’s charter of 1691. The crown now has the power to elect members to the governor’s council. It also limited the number of town meeting that could be held without the governor’s approval. The British made General Thomas Gage the governor of Massachusetts. Quebec Act: Enlarged Quebec’s boundaries south to the Ohio River and said that the colony was to be governed by an appointed governor and council but no elected assembly.

The act also provided for the trial of civil cases without a jury and gave the Catholic Church the same privileges that it had enjoyed under the French. ?First Continental Congress: Meeting in Philadelphia that lasted from September 5 to October 26, 1774, with 55 delegates from the colonies present. The congress passed the Suffolk Resolves Suffolk Resolves: Strongly worded resolutions that denounced the Coercive Acts as unconstitutional, advised the people to arm and called for general economic sanctions against Great Britain.

Continental Association: Congress created this to organize and enforce sanctions against the British. It pledged to Americans to cut off imports from Britain after December 1, 1774. If it was not resolved by September 1775, the association called for barring most exports to Britain and the West Indies… also issued a declaration of rights and grievances that condemned most of the steps that the British took since 1763. The Congress sent addresses to the people of America, to British civilians and to the King. They asked the king to protect his loyal subjects in America.

Political Division within America: Americans were divided over the extent of Parliament’s authority and the degree to which they could question it. During 1774 and 1775, debates raged in newspapers and colonists became increasingly polarized. In the last months before the outbreak of the American Revolution, the advocates of colonial rights began to call themselves Whigs and condemned their opponents as Tories (Loyalists). Massachusetts’ Committee of Safety: Emergency executive body created in October 1774 by the General court, calling itself the Provincial Congress.

Headed by John Hancock and began stockpiling weapons and organizing militia volunteers. Lexington and Concord: General Gage got orders on April 14, 1775 and on April 18; he assembled 700 men and marched them toward the little towns of Lexington and Concord to arrest rebel leaders and to destroy military supplies stockpiled. British soldiers reached Lexington at dawn and found about 70-armed militiamen in a formation. The British ordered them to disperse, and they were starting to obey when a shot cracked through the air, the British returned the volley and killed 18 Americans.

The British moved on to Concord and became under fire, retreated to Boston as groups of militia hit them from both sides of the road. Second Continental Congress: Convened in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775. It called for a patchwork of local forces to be organized into the Continental Army, authorized the formation of a navy, established a post office, and authorized the printing of paper continental dollars to meet its expenses. They created the Olive Branch Petition addressed to King George on July 5 and asked him to protect his American subjects from Parliament’s orders.

The following day Congress approved the Declaration of the causes and Necessity of Taking up Arms, asserting the resolve of American patriots to die freemen rather than to live like slaves. Selection of George Washington as Commander of Army: John Adams first nominated GW because he realized that it would help transform a local quarrel in New England into a continental conflict involving all of British North America. They expected Washington’s leadership to attract recruits. He was the ideal person for the job, had good judgment, a profound understanding of both the uses and the limitations of power and the gift of command.

The Debate Over Independence: Paine denounced the King and made the case for independence. He ridiculed the absurdity of “supposing a continent to be perpetually governed by an island”. American would be better off being independent. The King was the brute and his tyranny should be thrown off. Social Contract (Contract theory of Government): Political theory that lies behind the Declaration of Independence. Developed by John Locke, it says that legitimate government rests on an agreement between the people and their rulers. The people are bound to obey their rulers only so long as the rulers offer them protection.

Declaration of Independence: Adopted by Congress officially on July 4, 1776. It consisted on an opening assumption, two premises and a powerful conclusion. The opening is that all men are created equal and that they can neither give these rights nor allow them to be taken away. The first premise is that people establish governments to protect their fundamental rights to life, liberty and property. The second premise is the long list of charges direct towards King George III and said that he failed to defend his American subjects’ rights.

The conclusion stated that the Americans had a right to overthrow King George’s rule and replace it with something more satisfactory to them. Republicanism: Most Whigs thought that a republican government was best suited to American society. It was derived from political ideas of classical antiquity, Renaissance Europe and early modern England. It stated that self-government provided a more reliable foundation for the good of society and individual freedom than did rule by Kings. Called for government by consent of the governed.

It was suspicious of centralized government and insistent on the need for a public-spirited citizenry. Chapter 6 Strengths and weaknesses of the British and Colonial Armies: AmericansBritish -undisciplined and untrained-strict and professionally trained -used guerilla tactics-wore bright uniforms, carried heavy equ. -carried less equipment-fought in ranks of 3 -better suited for the warm climate (uniforms) -hired Hessian (German) soldiers -better suited to the landscape-superior weapons/artillery -fought in ranks of 2-fought in unfamiliar areas allied with the French-used forts from French and Indian War -strong supply sources Native Americans in the War -The natives were treated violently and aggressively -Tried to remain neutral, skills were seen as valuable and they were forced to choose -British side was more appealing -felt that the British would protect their land from white settlers -British had better trade system -rebel victory would leave them vulnerable to land grabbing -Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws and Chickasaws joined British War caused the split of the Iroquois Confederation with the Mohawks and Iroquois supporting the British and the Oneidas and Tuscaroras supporting the Americans -Some tribes were able to form alliances to preserve their control of the area -The natives were seldom used due to their unpredictable nature Women in the Armies -Officers’ wives, mistresses, and prostitutes accompanied units -The “camp followers” cooked, washed, loaded artillery and provided nursing care -Some women concealed their sex and fought alongside the men -Roles of women on the home front: replaced men in jobs such as weavers, carpenters and blacksmiths -transformed homes into hospitals -sent supplies to the troops (food, uniforms, etc. ) African American Participation -Offered freedom if they joined the loyalists -This plan was formed by British commander in Chief Sir Henry Clinton -toward the end of the war feeding and housing became a serious issue -Racial differences caused the British to be uneasy about arming the ex-slaves -most were given agricultural and construction jobs (blacks accompanying the Americans were given similar jobs) some black British dragoons did see action in the south -About 5,000 free slaves from Massachusetts and Rhode Island fought for the Americans -In the south John Laurens tried to get similar involvement of the slaves there -instead the legislature passed to give confiscated slaves from loyalists to white volunteers as rewards Crucial Battles in NY and NJ -William and Robert Howe (leaders of the British army) plan their operations in NY -Washington sent his troops to NY spring 1776 In the Battle of Brooklyn Heights on Long Island American forces quickly retreated to Manhattan -A negotiation of peace was set, however Robert could not grant independence -American troops were soon retreating to Pennsylvania after the Battle of White Plains -With a diminishing army Washington rode across the Delaware River December 25 -Launched a successful surprise attack on the Hessian mercenaries -1 week later at the Battle of Princeton Washington overwhelmed a British force -Both sides withheld all operations until the spring The Howes had given up a victory because they believed in peace and did not want to crush the American forces -When this strategy proved useless it was already too late to defeat the American army Saratoga Turning Point -8,000 British forces assembled in Canada during the winter of 1776-1777 led by John Burgoyne -A smaller column set out to capture a fort in Oriskany NY, but would not be successful -The army recaptured Fort Ticonderoga on July 5 By October 1777 the force had 6,000 men left and were confronted by 12,000 Americans led by General Gates -The defeat of Burgoyne made it possible for the French to consider an alliance with the Americans Valley Forge -William Howe, rather than send reinforcements, set out to Philadelphia to defeat Washington’s army -After a long battle at Brandywine Creek the American were defeated with 1,200 killed or captured -The Americans were forced to Valley Forge outside of Philadelphia -2,500 soldiers died from cold, disease or starvation The army still trained rigorously under General von Steuben and after breaking camp were finally a match for the British forces French Alliance -The victories and loses at Saratoga and Brandywine made it difficult for France to decide on an alliance -The alliance was made, due to the French hatred toward Britain that stated that France would fight for the US until their independence was recognized -France was able to get Spain to join an alliance; this helped with logistical matters such as food, resources and new forts for the Americans to control -The British replaced Howes with Sir Henry Clinton who: set to attack the French West Indies -evacuated troops out of Philadelphia -pulled troop out of NJ and into NY The War in the South -During the first 3 years of the war, the loyalists in the south were made little use of -after sending redcoats through an area, Tory militias would be left behind to establish loyalty and suppress local Whigs -British forces moved through Georgia with little opposition and captured Savannah and Augusta -Spain captured several British outposts along the Mississippi and Mobile Rivers a force of 5,500 French and American soldiers laid siege to Savannah but was forced to launch a premature assault which failed -The British sent 9,000 troops by boat down to Charleston (the key to the South) – The Battle of Charleston was the single greatest defeat of the American during the war (over 5,000 troops surrendered) -The British swept through the rest of the South and slaughtered 350 Virginian Continentals under the British Colonel Tarleton -Clinton thinking that the south was defeated Clinton: forced prisoners to join the British army -sailed back to NY -Whigs continued to defy British authority because of Tarleton’s atrocity and loyalists felt that the rebels had been left off to easily Treaty of Paris -On November 30, 1782 an Anglo-American Peace of Paris was signed -The treaty gave into all of the US demands except control of Canada -States were recognized as “free, sovereign and independent” -new nation extended from Maine to past the Great Lake and from the Mississippi to north of New Orleans -The Spanish acquired East and West Florida The US did not get access to the Gulf of Mexico which would be a source of political friction for years Provisions of the Treaty: -rights to use Eastern Canadian waters for fishing -all American property be left behind by the redcoats, including slaves -all debts between Americans and British traders still stood -recommended that land and property be given back to the loyalists Social effects of the war on African-Americans The war in the North helped to dissolve slavery (although it remained legal for some time afterwards) -Slavery was strengthened in the South as an important part of the economy -The free slaves that fought for the British went to Canada, the West Indies and some went to Africa were the British established a colony for them called Sierra Leone Social effects of the war on Women -Women were given more financial and property privileges Abigail Adams urged John to “remember the Ladies” meaning that she wanted legal protection and recognition of their value -a new view of women was created in the post-Revolutionary era, their job was to nurture wise, virtuous, and public-spirited men Social effects of the war on Native Americans -The British had given up land east of the Mississippi which opened floodgates for white settlers to encroach further on the natives land -Native Americans had not been represented in the negotiations in Paris -The Revolutionary War was seen as a disaster by most natives? Chapter 7 The New Order of Republicanism Republicanism to Americans

Legitimate political power comes from people People elect officials, and officials should follow interests of people People could define & limit gov’t power through constitutions Who were “the people”? Generally, only white landholding males could vote Native Americans not considered part of US More landholding males in America – higher suffrage rate than other parts of world Women in the Revolution Revolution didn’t change women’s positions much Only NJ gave women right to vote Easier for them to divorce, greater access to education and business opportunities Mothers teach children principles of liberty – “republican motherhood”

Southern Blacks Many slaves freed More whites went against slavery Northern blacks Most northern states ended slavery Whites thought slavery went against idea of natural rights Freed blacks still had to face white prejudice and discrimination Impact on Indians Americans angered that most Indians were neutral/helped British Indian lands treated as prize of war – distributed among white settlers State Constitutions All constitutions were written – different from British “constitution” Limited executive power, increased legislative power Most had some form of a bill of rights Religion

Weakened tie between church and state New England – Congregationalism was main religion Mid-Atlantic – many different religions South – formerly Anglican, but lost status since most Anglicans were Loyalists Radical & Conservative views of republicanism Radicals – all free males allowed to vote Conservatives – feared “mob rule,” wanted to limit voting rights State legislatures were bicameral Overall, there was a growing political equality Articles of Confederation Created a loose confederation of states Very limited central gov’t – one weak Congress, no executive or judicial branch Each state had one vote in Congress

Important measures required 9 votes; amendments to Articles needed all 13 Congress mostly had power in foreign policy and national defense Most states ratified quickly; Maryland waited until Congress given control over West Problems at Home Fiscal crisis Congress and states deep in debt Congress printed paper bills to pay off debt, but these quickly became worthless Nationalists – wanted to strengthen central gov’t Robert Morris – leader of nationalists – created Bank of N. A First commercial bank Used to hold gov’t funds, make loans, issue bank notes Wanted to nationalize debt – make richer people more dependent on success of nation

Needed to get Congress taxing power; RI rejected proposal Economic Depression Started early 1780s British banned American exports, but continued to supply them with imports ?5 million trade deficit w/ England City wages fell, small farmers had trouble paying taxes Not enough money in circulation Ended late 1780s – Americans found new markets for goods States’ Economic Policies Lack on uniform national economic policy Foreign shippers avoided higher tariffs by going to states with lower tariffs Differences in interests of northern and southern states Shays’s Rebellion Started fall 1786

Foreclosures and imprisonment for unpaid debts very high in west Mass. Legislature refused to pass relief measures ~2000 farmers took up arms against state gov’t Quickly crushed In R. I. , law passed that flooded state w/ paper money – debts much easier to pay off Alarmed conservatives – mob rule Congress and the West US gained much land due to Peace of Paris (treaty after Revolution) Congress passed a series of effective provisions for its settlement and governments Treaties negotiated w/ Indians to abandon their land Land Ordinance of 1785 Lands surveyed in rectangular grid pattern – (see pg 204 for land divisions)

Sale of 16th section of each 36-section plot set aside for public schools Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Created a political structure for the territories Process for achieving statehood Provided protection for property rights, and banned slavery Diplomatic Weakness US was weak and often ridiculed Congress had no economic or military power – no leverage in talks w/ other countries Impasse with Britain Congress unable to resolve major issues w/ England England claimed Americans violated treaty, used this to justify its own violations British tried to keep US divided and weak Spain and the Mississippi River

Spain refused to recognize southern and western borders of US Denied US access to Miss. River Spain tried to take advantage of divided loyalties of frontier settlers Failed treaty between US and Spain showed weakness in unity of states Toward a New Union Many problems w/ US: debt, social unrest, arguments between different states and regions, uncertain status of West, limited trade, lack of central authority and purpose Annapolis Convention – tried to devise system of national commercial regulation Nationalists called on states to send delegates to a Constitutional Convention The Road to Philadelphia

Started with a meeting of some states at Mt Vernon to resolve various disputes Went so well that delegates to ^ invited other states to an Annapolis Convention Nationalists ended meeting and called for a constitutional convention The Convention at Work Congress only authorized a revision of Articles, but delegates wanted to replace Articles Virginia Plan – representation based on population NJ Plan – equal representation Great Compromise Bicameral legislature – combines Virginia and NJ Plans Slaves counted as 3/5 of a person

Regulation of commerce and issue of slavery Trade laws and tariffs only needed a simple majority Congress could not alter the slave trade for 20 years Stuff about what’s in the Constitution – check the notes of whoever did the Constitution The Struggle over Ratification Put an article into the Constitution saying that only 9 states needed to ratify, as opposed to all of them Federalists – supported Constitution, stronger central gov’t Antifederalists – opposed Constitution, stronger states – see p 213 for a fuller chart

Antifederalists never really able to counter Federalist propaganda Federalists promised to include bill or rights after ratification of Constitution – gained more supporters The Federalist – collection of essays supporting Constitution Chapter 8 Problems Washington faced:? -Debt of the wars, and from the depression -British and Spain in the West left them worried about invasions, battles, and wars that they cannot afford -Divided nation; North and South, where South believed in slaves, and North, trading/importing goods? First President, asserting central authority among a population that was weary about a strong national government Uniformity of New England: -4 million citizens lived here, making it the most populous region in America – Because of New England’s poor soils and long cold winters, crops were pointless, thus, little need of imported white indentured servants or black slaves -Because of the large population of Puritans, they largely believed in Republicanism, civic duty and community involvement -It is the most religiously and ethnically uniform region in the US Mid-Atlantic Region Composed of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania -Most ethnically and religiously diverse region in the nation -Unlike New England, the Middle Colonies had offered freedom of worship to attract settlers, and also had more economic opportunities -Housed the two largest cities in the country; New York and Philadelphia -Slavery was never an economically vital institution in most the mid-Atlantic region -The diversity created a complex political environment South Consisted of states from Maryland and Delaware to Georgia, where the weather conditions favored the production of cash staples for world markets -Economic conditions varied in the South; the backcountry was in poverty while the planters of the farms had great wealth -Planters understood liberty to mean the power of white males to rule over others -Backcountry farmers shared with the planters a disdain for government and restraints on the individual -The Indians in the West prevented the Americans from expanding, especially with their alliance with the British Bill of Rights Issue James Madison wanted to add bill of rights that focused only on individual liberties. Before the Constitution was ratified, the Federalists promised the Antifederalists that they would add bills of rights that promoted states rights. Madison submitted 19 amendments, and Congress soon settled on 12. -10 of these became known as the Bill of Rights -When the Bill of Rights were added, North Carolina and Rhode Island both joined the Union Departments and Courts Congress authorized the first executive departments; the State Department for foreign affairs, the Treasury for finances, and the War Department for the nation’s defense -The Judiciary Act of 1789 settled the disputes between states’ rights advocates and those who wanted a strong central government. It created a hierarchical national judiciary. Appeals from these courts were to be heard in one of three circuit courts and the Supreme Court was to have the final say in contested cases Revenue and Trade The government’s most important need was to INCREASE REVENUE -The Tariff Act of 1789 was designed NOT to protect American manufacturers, but to raise revenue by keeping out foreign goods with high duties -Manufacturers who were concentrated in the North wanted high tariffs for protections against foreign competition -Farmers in the South wanted low tariffs to keep down the cost of the manufactured goods they purchased Hamilton He was responsible for bringing order to the nation’s finances…Sec of Treasury -1.

The federal government should fund the national debt at full face value, and that the federal government should assume the remaining war debt of the state governments -2. Issued an excise tax on distilled whiskey produced in the US -3. He recommended the chartering of a national bank, the Bank of the United States – He also promoted industry. He wanted to model the British economic development by telling the US to change their largely agrarian economy Opposition The southern states had already paid back a good share of the war debts, which made it seem that he favored the northern states -Madison and Jefferson disagreed with Hamilton because they believed that the bank would re-create in the US the kind of government corruption and privilege they associated with Great Britain. -With Washington’s consent, Hamilton’s bank was chartered for 20 years. -Congress passed a hefty 25 percent excise tax on distilled liquor. Parties -Federalists were supporters of Hamilton’s program—speculators, creditors, merchants, manufacturers and commercial farmers.

They were fully integrated into the market economy, and in control of it -Republicans were in opposition to the Federalists—believed in individual liberties. Accused Hamilton of attempting to impose a British system French Revolution -The French Revolution began in 1789, where Americans were in full support of it in its early stage. -After it became violent in 1792, the American public split -Edmond Genet arrived in the US where he demanded America to defend French Caribbean colonies from the 1778 Treaty.

West Anthony Wayne’s victory resulted in the Treaty of Greenville, where 12 tribes ceded most of the present state of Ohio to the US govt. Whiskey Rebellion -Democratic-Republican societies of western Pennsylvania were behind the rebelliousness of federal authority -Washington sent an army of 13,000 men where they found no resistance. Jay’s Treaty -John Jay’s treaty with Britain had to abandon the American insistence on the right of neutrals to ship goods to nations at war without interference. He also had to grant Britain “most favored nation” status -In return, Britain pledged to compensate American merchants for the ships and cargoes it seized, and abandon the 6 forts in the US Washington’s Farewell Address -Washington was warning the nation of two basic faults that he felt might prevent the US from becoming a major power. He warned against factions (political parties) and military alliances that might get the US involved in wars they could not win or afford… tried to avoid them during his administration.

XYZ Affair -3 intermediaries sent by Adams known as X, Y and Z. France demanded a $12 million bribe. -Quasi-War erupted in Caribbean waters Alien and Sedition Acts -4 laws that were aimed at immigrants, especially French and Irish who voted for Republicans -The acts convinced hundreds of immigrants to flee the country to avoid possible arrest End of the Federalists -The Federalists were hampered by party disunity and could not counter the Republicans’ aggressive organizational tactics Deism They viewed God as a kind of master clockmaker who created the laws by which the universe runs but otherwise leaves it alone Adams’ Difficulties -Quaker and German farmer in the Mid-Atlantic States defected from the Federalists over the tax legislation -Passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts Election of 1800 -Republicans won the election by mobilizing voters through strong party organizations -Voter turnout was twice what it had been in the early 1790s, most new voters were Republican Constitution House of Reps: Elections every 2 years.

Voting for representatives is determined by each state. -25 years old, must have been a U. S. citizen for at least 7 years, and must, at the time of election, be a citizen of the state from which he is elected. -The number of representatives per state in the House of Representatives is determined… population count to be taken every 10 years starting 3 years after the first meeting of Congress. Population counts tally all free people, including indentured servants, plus 3/5 of all slaves. Native Americans who are not taxed are not counted. A state sends one representative per 30,000 people. If a representative’s spot is suddenly vacated, the executive power from that state determines how it will be filled until election time. -The House chooses its own speaker and other officers. The power of impeachment resides in the House: the House can impeach any civil officer of the United States, including president and vice president, but excluding members of Congress. -A proposed law, or bill, can originate in either the Senate or the House of Representatives, except for new tax laws, which must come from the House of Representatives. Senate: 2 senators per state.

The legislative branch of each state selects the senators. Senators serve for a 6-year period. Each senator has 1 vote. [Note: Since the ratification of Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators have been directly elected by the people rather than appointed by state legislatures. ] a third of the Senate is replaced every 2 years. If a senator’s spot is suddenly vacated, the executive power from that state will appoint a temporary replacement until the state legislature meets again and chooses a permanent replacement. 30 years old, must have been a U. S. itizen for at least 9 years, and must, at the time of election, be a citizen of the state from which he is elected. The vice president of the United States serves as president of the Senate, but will not be allowed to vote except to break a tie. The Senate tries all cases of impeachment. A conviction requires that 2/3 of the members present agree. The Senate can only remove a convicted official from office and disqualify him from holding other federal offices. Congress Powers: levy and collect taxes, regulate commerce, declares war, enumerated powers, elastic clause. owers withheld from congress: ?  The right to habeas corpus shall not be suspended unless emergency situations—for example, rebellions or foreign invasions—require it to be suspended. ?  No bill of attainder will be passed, which means no individual will be attainted (condemned to lose his civil rights) or have his property confiscated without a trial. Also, no ex post facto law will be passed, which means no one will be punished for an act committed before a law made the act illegal. ?  No export items from any state can be taxed. Powers withheld from states:

States cannot enter into any treaties or alliances or pass letters that grant permission for citizens to plunder ships during war). States are also forbidden to coin money or print paper money, or to accept anything but gold and silver as payment for debts. States cannot allow criminal conviction without a trial or pass any ex post facto laws . States may not pass any laws that interfere with legal contracts or grant any title of nobility. States may not enter into agreements with other states or a foreign power or engage in war without congressional permission, unless acting in defense against an invasion.

President: -must be a natural-born citizen or must have become a citizen by the time the U. S. Constitution was passed. The president must be at least 35 years old and must have lived in the United States for at least 14 years. Powers: -commander-in-chief, grant pardons, make cabinet, has the power to make foreign treaties, provided that 2/3 of the senators present agree. The president can nominate and appoint, with the approval of the Senate, ambassadors and other public ministers, judges to the Supreme Court,  -president must give state of the union to congress. Powers of judicial branch: In trials involving a state or an ambassador (or other public minister or consul), the Supreme Court has original jurisdiction, meaning the Court hears the case first. In all other cases, the Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction, meaning the Court hears the case only if the original decision is appealed. Congress may determine the regulations for the process of appeals. -All criminal trials except for impeachment will be decided by a jury. A trial will be held in the state in which the alleged crime was committed. If the crime was not committed in any state, Congress decides the location of the trial.

While drafting the Constitution, some delegates expressed concern that in establishing a powerful centralized government the document did not adequately guarantee the protection of individual liberties and states’ rights. These delegates were known as Antifederalists, whereas those who favored strong central government over individual and states’ rights were known as Federalists. The Bill of Rights —the name for the first 10 amendments to the U. S. Constitution—was a concession made by Federalists to Antifederalists. Ratified in 1791, the Bill of Rights guarantees the rights of individuals and of states.

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