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The Market Revolution, The Antebellum Period Essay

The Revolutionary War erupted many conflicts that the nation had to solve throughout its existence. The struggle for independence primarily revolved around the consequences before and after the wars collided. This Era caused Britain’s American colonies to separate from the empire (GML, Foner 175). Along with this came the 7 Year War that began when the French and Indian fought against Great Britain. After the war, the England government started taxing their own colonist for the damage. “No taxation without representation” became the colonists’ cry (Foner GML 180).

The Boston Tea party was a rebellious act among the citizens due to over taxation on their tea, they spilled million dollars worth of tea into the ocean. President George Washington seized the recruitment of blacks in 1775 he changed his mind after Lord Dunmore’s 1775 proclamation, which offered freedom to slaves who joined the British Cause (Foner, GML 200). African Americans then played an enormous role in this era since 5,000 blacks enlisted in state militias and the Continental army (Fonr, GML,200). The resistance of the Revolution Era influenced the Enlightenment among colonist and promoted the idea of question.

Women controlled the domestic power in the war, they often lied about their gender and have fake relationships in order to get information. The Declaration of independence was a war document that on July 2nd congress decelerated the United States as an independent Nation. These factor lead to the beginning of the Market Revolution, the Antebellum period and lastly the Civil War. In this essay I will profound on the importance of The Market Revolution, The Antebellum period as well as the Civil War in an economic, political, and social point of view.

The Market revolution was the start of new economy in the Nation; this era provoked the start of new technologies and resources. As a nation we improved and showed an acceleration of development and inventions. With the serious of transportation and communication the market revolution opened up business and profits that were beyond what everyone expected. In this section I will examine the Market Revolution in a social political and economical point of view. This era improved roads and opened up market opportunities that contributed to social distribution to our nation.

The transportation society bonded rural areas, urban centers and showed dramatic changes due to its advancement’s (Foner GML, 330). The number of cities rose as well as the population of citizens; they rose from 5,00 to nearly 6 million (Foner GML, 330). With the vast majority of citizens it pressured manufactured company’s to make new inventions. These new inventions included telegraphs, and the Erie Canal. The telegraph was invented by Samuel F. B Morse in 1830, and it later lead to the Morse code, which was the earliest email. The Telegraph expanded communication methods that helped the nation grow as a social community.

With this entrepreneur’s gathered resources and made roads and canals that lead up to all parts of the waters. It opened up new land settlement; lowered transportation cost and made it easier for economic enterprise to sell products (Foner, GML, 321). Communication grew for new areas and it stimulated coal mining. The first railroad that was created in the 1860’s was 30,000 miles long, and the spread of new technologies grew even faster (Dawn Dennis, Lecture). Railroads represented in this era the wealth of America because the more transportation they have the more ideas and resources will be passed along.

The cotton kingdom raised the economic growth in this era. With the vast majority of production and profit the nation had a diverse industrial revolution that took place In England. This created the invention of the cotton gin, which was a machine that spread the seeds of cotton through the fields and made slaves work faster and more efficiently. The Morse code also benefited the economic factor because it brought satisfactory prices throughout the country that caused more business (Foner, GML 324).

The spread of the Market revolution to the north created factories to produce cotton textiles, and weaving machinery (Foner VOF, 166). By 1850 the job of Factories raised and so did the complaints of harsh hours and unsanitary conditions. Lowell a company created in Boston employed more than 10,000 workers (Foner VOF 166). This company called for a written complaint in 1845 that stated how unity among other factory workers, break free from arbitrarily power by saying” they will not submit abundant exercise’s over [them)” (Foner, VOF, 168).

Jefferson at this point wanted the basis of the empire to serve as an economic liberty to enslavement (Dennis Lecture). He envisioned verses of reality towards cotton, but this nation was brought up on hypocrisy. Political issues such as the western movement, that took place in 1808 was the creation of internal slave trade during this era (Dennis Lecture). An association called Lowel Female Labor Reform published series of Factory tracts that exposed conditions in the mills to show its corporation (Foner VOF, 166).

These women had written what they believed and many civilians’ asked themselves” Shall the fear to appeal to the sympathies of the people be far-famed to the nation” (Foner VOF 167). New Orleans for example was he second largest slave trading port in the nation that proved slavery was a business. Association such as the ACS did not abolish slavery because they new it was too profitable to our nation. The market revolution helped change Americas Conception of itself since they did not respect the slaves. The factory systems aroused in this era and embraced the Embargo of 1807.

This act stimulated establishment of the first large -scale American factory utilizing power of looms for new factory towns (Foner GML, 331). This corporate form of business organized central ways of politics to the new market economy (Foner GML, 337). The Antebellum Period consisted of extreme Wealth to this Nation. The Extreme wealth aroused because of the vast majority of cotton production, it served as the king to the nation. The old south served as the most powerful society in this era while the North abolished slavery. These two regions had different points of views however they shaped the lives of all Americans.

This period brought with it the first economic depression as well as issues with race and gender. As this period had lots of contributions to our nation I will limit myself to the more direct points. In this essay I will examine the antebellum period in the 1820’s through the 1860’s in a social, economic and political perspective. Resistance to slavery was a big factor in the Antebellum Era since its highest peek was due to the work labor of slaves. The social effects of slavery caused slaves to resist against the unfairness acts and they soon started finding ways to rebel.

In this the slaves started doing “day-to-day resistance” which was doing poor work, or breaking tools in order to disrupt the plantation routine (Foner, GML 424). Race and gender also play a key factor in this era, women started diversing in the west bringing with them domesticity. These women sold domestic wares and established communities such as class, religion and new ways of living. Take for example Marie Laveau she was a hair stylist who was secretly the voodoo queen, she owned business and paid newspapers not to rat her out.

Women like her started taking political power and were getting involved in the antebellum period. The Antebellum period can be directly linked to the economic crises that happened in the 1820’s thought the 1860’s. For example the old south was the largest and mot powerful slave society in history, this was based on the virtual monopoly of cotton (Dawin Dennis, Lecture). In the 1860’s the worth of slaves high rocketed and exceeded the worth of factories, railroads and banks all combined (Foner, GML, 398).

The era of the cotton king included Northern ships to arry cotton, then the Northern banks financed the plantations and lastly Northern factories turned cotton into products (Daiwn Dennis). Slavery had dominated the economic factor in the era because everything was strictly business. Without the slaves there would be no cotton, merchandise, and most importantly no money. Cotton trade profits helped enhance industrial development and internal improvements in the north (Dawin Dennis) The Antebellum Period generated an immense demand for cotton, as well as bringing the existence of the panic in 1819.

In a political point of view I will explain how this factor affected the growth of the nation. Before the 1819 cotton was the reason why our nation was so diverse full of production and merchandise. The resumption of trade with Europe created a huge overseas market for American cotton (Foner GML 366). With this it caused citizens to get loans and purchase land, this made the banks happy and they started printing more money (Foner GML, 366). Then the lands of the western fell and the panic broke loose.

Banks then asked for payments from those whom had loaned money and since citizens had no funding it caused a panic (Foner GML, 366). Farmers and businessmen who could not repay declared bankruptcy, and unemployment (Foner, GML 366). Adding on to this in 1819 sales of cotton went down and we see the first economic oppression take place. Even as political party divisions faded john Marshall aligned the Supreme Court with the aggressive nationalism that issues of slavery threatened the nations unity (Foner, GML 368).

Slavery was then prohibited in all remaining territories within the Louisiana Purchase (Foner GML 368). The Missouri Compromise then came in stake with the idea that it could not deprive the citizens of any states of their rights under the U. S constitution (Foner, GML 369). This altered a sectional division and as Adams said “disastrous events might result in civil war” (Foner, GML 369). The Civil War was the first time mass armies fought with weapons by the Industrial Revolution (Dawin Dennis). The Civil War was the aggression between the states, and was the war that split apart the nations.

The war was not provoked by the corruption of the states but rather a battle of slavery. Both the North and the South had contradictory points of view on slavery and this caused the war to erupt. As general Carl Schurz said,” this is a revolution half finished” (Dawn Dennis). In this essay will examine the social, political, and economical eras of the Civil War. The war became a conflict between societies and separated military and civilians. The reason why the Civil War erupted was because there was social difference between the North and South, and there was controversy with slavery issues.

The social differences were that the North included loyal Border States, had a population of 22 million while the south had only 9 million, 3. 5 million were slaves (Foner, GML 511). The south supported slavery all the way while the North tried to stay away from that issue as much as possible. The outbreak of war stimulated powerful actions of patriotism, and recruits hastened the war, superiority of the North increased in population and resources (Davis IB, 299). The southerners made it hard for the free blacks to start off new that they imposed unfair rules.

The blacks had to face hard test to let them in the army, as well as obeying laws such as the grandfather clause. Once slaves were free it was hard for them to get good jobs, which left them improvised and poor (Dawn Dennis, Lecture). Indeed, racism the belief that blacks were innately inferior to whites and unsuited for life in any condition other than slavery formed one pillar of the proslavery ideology (Foner, GML 406). With this came the Jim Crow era that was the segregation of violence against the black community.

This era involved lynching parties, which was the physical torture of blacks in public and the start of black trading cards. The black trading cards started with the invention of the Kodak camera that captured all the rituals whites had of killing the blacks. In this era we created a media of false interpretations of the lives of slaves. In North Carolina white administration didn’t allow black students to share the same textbooks as the whites. The Jim Crow era is the social name given to this era that caused stereotypes of our history, and we still see this today.

The civil war took both the south and the north by surprise; this was seen in an economic outbreak. There was no banking system, no tax system capable of raising enormous funds needed to finance the war, and no accurate maps of the southern states (Foner, GML 515). In this you see that in the wars third year, southern armies suffered from low supply of food uniforms, and shoes (Foner, GML 515). The union’s federal budget of 1865 exceeded one billion, and nearly twenty times that of 1860 (Foner, GML 537).

The economic system reached its downfall that the Confederacy relied on worthless paper money of which it issued 1. 5 billion dollars (Foner, GML 541). Despite al their outfalls in becoming an army by the end of the war, the army became the best fed and best supplied in history (Foner, GML 515). The civil War brought political language that contrasted between liberty and slavery complaints that outsiders prospered to reduce them to “slaves” (Foner, GML 407). Beginning of 1830 however the pro slavery writers began to question the ideals of liberty, equality and democracy (Foner, GML 407).

A letter written by Hannah Johnson advised the president to insist that black prisoners be treated the same as whites and resist pressure to recline the Emancipation Proclamation (Foner VOF, 297). As the second controversy intensified after 1830, a number of southern writers and politician’s came to defend slavery (Foner GML, 408). As the crowd listened to the speech of a black army chaplain, who “proclaimed for the first time in that city freedom to all mankind,” they began to hear the shouts and chanting of slaves who were still imprisoned behind the barred windows of Lumpkin’s Jail (Davis IB, 297).

President Abraham Lincoln wanted “new birth of freedom”; he created a clear battle tactic whose priority was to save the nation from slavery (Dennis Lecture). Lincoln guided the nation through confederate attacks that ignition on April 12 1861, and he called for 75,000 troops to suppress (Foner, GML, 506). President Lincoln came to agree at least that the war was the direct work of God: “We must work earnestly in the best light He gives us,” Lincoln wrote “trusting that so working still conduces to the great ends (Davis IB, 302).

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