History of Community Nursing Matrix NUR 405 Healthy Communities: Theory and Practice Sarah Kinnard RN October 24, 2011 Beth Edwards MSN, BC, FNP Past period 1 Industrial Revolution 1750-1900 Description of Historical time period During the industrial revolution technological and economical advances were made with the development of steam powered ships and railroads replacing manual labor with mechanical work. As a result, changes in society and health care needs occurred. Nursing focus shifted from private duty, living with and providing care for one family, to visiting nurses, visiting several families a day.
Nursing role in community Nursing in the community focused on disease prevention and providing care for the vulnerable such as immigrant workers and the poor. Lillian Wald, the first public health nurse in the United States, provided nursing care and education in poor communities located in New York City. Nursing concentrated on providing and educating the community on proper nutrition and sanitation in an effort to reduce the spread of disease. Major health issues Many of the health issues during this time were directly related to poor sanitation and contaminated water supplies.
The poor, unable to pay for medical services did not receive adequate medical care increasing mortality. Cholera was a huge health concern during the industrial revolution, killing thousands as it spread through the water and sewage systems of major cities. Typhus, typhoid fever, and tuberculosis also took the lives of many people during the industrial revolution. Florence Nightingale established the first nursing school in the United States, introducing nursing as a profession. Partnerships used
Visiting nurse associations were established in cities such as New York, Philadelphia, and Boston (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008). Lillian Wald founded the Henry Street Settlement, providing health care and social services for the local community. Watson’s theory Watson’s carative factor: development of helping-trusting, human caring relationship was demonstrated during the Industrial Revolution by the establishment of nursing in communities. Relationships evolved from caring for a family to caring for the members and families who made up communities.
Caring relationships were established with the destitute, poor, women, children, and immigrants who lacked proper medical attention. Past period 2 Depression of the 1930’s Description of Historical time period Economic depression experienced by American’s during the 1930’s impacted community health nursing. During this time unemployment soared, increasing poverty and illness. Many professional private duty nurses whom worked in their patient homes found themselves unemployed simply because families could not afford their services. Nursing role in community
Nursing roles in the community focused on health and prevention of illness and the spread of communicable disease associated with malnutrition, poverty, and poor living conditions. Public health nurses promoted health and wellness for mothers and their children, administered immunizations, and performed screenings of prenatal women for syphilis. According to Mississippi State Department of Health, nurses traveled to homes within the community to stress the importance of good health habits and having a cow, a garden, screened homes, baby beds, and sanitary privies.
Malnutrition and pellagra was prevalent during the Depression. Economic hardships cause by unemployment made healthy, nutritious diets unattainable for many families. Major health issues Communicable diseases such as syphilis, tuberculosis, and malaria were considered a major health concern due to the lack of disease prevention knowledge within the community; knowledge required to reduce the spread of communicable disease Partnerships used FERA supported nurse employment through visiting nurse agencies and prevented additional public health nurse agency closures.
Fundamental services provided by FERA included providing bedside care and health supervision for the family in the home; arranging for medical and hospital care for emergency and obstetric cases; supervising the health of children in emergency relief nursery schools; and caring for patients with tuberculosis (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008). Funding from the Social Security Act increased public health services to mothers in children located in rural areas suffering from economic hardships. Watson’s carative factor: assistance with gratification of human needs was demonstrated by nurses during the Depression.
Nurses assisted families in creating a healthy and clean environment through education and support. Nurses demonstrated caring through their dedication to assisting families promote healthy habits for themselves and their children. Current period 1980’s to Present Description of Historical time period At the end of the twenty century and beginning of the twenty first century health care was concerned with increasing cost and quality of care. Disease and injury prevention, as well as health promotion became the key to reducing health care cost. Nursing role in community
Professional nursing support and education offered in the community improved health care delivery, provided public health services to promote health, prevent illness and protect the public (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008). Public health nurses assist with everything from prenatal care, promoting healthy eating, and reducing community exposure to toxins. Major health issues Changes in the American diet with the introduction of convenient and fast foods and sedentary lifestyles increase the incidence of heart disease and obesity, leading to many chronic medical conditions.
HIV and cancer have claimed the lives of millions, presenting a major health issue. Threats of bioterrorism continue to be of concern since the attacks of 9/11. Threats of natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, and tsunamis presented a threat to community health and wellness. Partnerships usedT The Future of Public Health report by the Institute of Medicine proposed an improvement in public health. Healthy People 2010 prioritized and established health care goals and objectives, focusing on public health, health promotion and disease prevention.
After the attacks in New York City and Washington D. C. , homeland security was establish aiding in public protection from biological terrorism. National disaster plans have been established for increased preparedness in the event of a wide scale natural disaster. Watson’s theory Watson’s carative factor: provision for a supportive, protective, and/or corrective physical environment is demonstrated through the education, support, health promotion, and disease prevention offered by today’s public health nursing efforts.
Public health nursing provides services extending the caring, healing environment into the community. References Egenes, Karen. J. (n. d. ). History of Nursing. Retrieved from http://jblearning. com/samples/0763752258/52258_CH01_Roux. pdf Mississippi State Department of Health. (n. d. ) Public health nursing1920-1949. Retrieved from http://msdh. ms. gov/msdhsite/_static/4,10786,204,493. html#year1930 Stanhope, M. , & Lancaster, J. (2008). Population-centered health care in the community (7th ed. ). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier