The way lipstick is made and packaged has also changed drastically since it was first used, and recent studies have tested lipstick, debating whether or not it is healthy to apply on a daily basis. Lipstick is a “must have” item for many women, and the history proves that it has made an impact on how cosmetics are seen and used today. Going back to around 400 B. C. , ancient Mesopotamia women were possibly among the first to make and wear lip color (Foregoer, 2012). It is believed that these women used crushed Jewels and gems mixed with a paste to make the lipstick.
Women in the Indus Valley used lipstick regularly, but in Egypt, lipstick made much advancement (Lipstick History, 2005). Egyptians used lipstick to determine upper class from royal class. It was in Egypt where they began using crushed carmine beetles to make lipstick. Some recipes also included poisonous ingredients that caused many serious illnesses. The deep, red color became very popular, and soon an effect of appearances that was extracted from fish scales was added to give the color a nice shimmer (Foregoer, 2012). Lipstick, as we would think of it today, was invented by ABA al-Assam al-
Zachary of Arabia, during the Islamic Gold Age of the 10th century (Foregoer, 2012). This lipstick was solid, in stick form, and the first iterations were perfumed sticks rolled and pressed into special molds (Freeman 2008). Lipstick continued to remain popular until the Medieval Ages, when lipstick became banned by the church for being a “tool of Satan” (Bargainer, 2013). The use of lipstick took a quick turn in the sixteenth century, when Queen Elizabeth I showed off her pale, white face with bright, crimson red lips. By this time, the process of making lipstick had become much safer.
Queen Elizabethan lipstick was said to have been made from a mix of beeswax and plants (Musketeer, 2011). After the reign of Queen Elizabeth l, Queen Victoria took the throne and lipstick, soon again, had disappeared. Queen Victoria seemed to be more conservative, and lipstick was only used by prostitutes (Foregoer, 2012). The sass’s continued to be strict, having most of England believing in anti- cosmetics. In 1770, British Parliament passed a law stating that marriages could be annulled if a woman wore cosmetics before her wedding day (Bargainer, 2013).
On the other hand, in France, upper class women were encouraged to use cosmetics urine the sass’s, as they believed the natural look was to be reserved for prostitutes and working women (Musketeer, 2011). The use of lipstick continued to remain unladylike until the Industrial Revolution of the late 19th century (Kitchens, 2013). Lipstick started making its comeback with the help of the arts. Women performing on stage and in films used lipstick, and shortly after, women everywhere started to wear it to make a fashion statement.
In the United States, lipstick was first advertised in the sass’s in the Sears Roebuck catalog (Bargainer, 2013). During this time, lipstick as colored with carmine dye extracted from cochineal insect scales (Musketeer, 2011). Lipstick continued to grow in popularity, especially in silent films, as women in the films wore black lipstick (Bargainer, 2013). The French perfumer Guerilla invented the first readily available commercial lipstick and used silk papers to package it (Bellies, 2014). Before that, lipstick was sold in paper tubes, tinted papers, or also in small pots (Foregoer, 2012).
Just when silk paper packaging began to seem much classier, an even bigger invention came. In 1915, Maurice Levy invented the cylinder metal lipstick tube. Also in 1915, a bill was passed by Kansas legislature that would have made it a misdemeanors for a woman under forty-four to wear makeup because it “created a false impression” (Schaffer, 2006). In 1923, James Bruce Mason Jar. From Nashville, Tennessee, patented the first swivel up tube (Bellies, 2014). The lipstick case bottom featured a decorative screw head that one turned as the lip color depleted (Shaffer, 2006).
By the mid-sass’s, the popularity of lipstick had risen dramatically (Foregoer, 2012). During the sass’s, companies began to spend more time and effort marketing and advertising the use of lipstick. The founder and eponymous of Helena Rubberiest makeup, Helena Rubberiest, was the first to advertise lipstick with sun protection (Foregoer, 2012). During this time, lipstick was seen as an important part of the war effort, urging women to buy it (Bargainer, 2013). It was also during this decade that the first safety regulations of cosmetics were passed.
President Franking D Roosevelt announced during his term as President his support for strengthening of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. His goal was to correct the lack of cosmetics regulation (Shaffer, 2006). By the sass’s, Lipstick was becoming more care because of World War II. With metal being rationed, lipstick tubes were replaced with plastic and paper. But, with essential ingredients like petroleum and castor oil needed for war efforts, it was hard to produce mass amounts of it (Foregoer, 2012). As a result of this, Hazel Bishop created a no-smear lipstick, the very first of its kind.
This lipstick was said to put stay all day (Bellies 2014). During this decade, there was also a rush in propaganda trying to convince young girls that wearing lipstick was undesirable to men. In response, companies like Amiability, Revolve, and Covering continued to rely on their marketing campaigns that targeted girls ages sixteen and up. By the late ‘ass’s, ninety percent of American women were wearing lipstick (Bargainer, 2013). The sass’s was said to be a crucial decade for lipstick, going from scarce to wanted by every woman, with many innovators and new brands.
By the sass’s, lipstick was finally deemed acceptable for all again. This time, it was even seen as “sexy. ” Again, with the help of films, lipstick use was booming. Stars such as Marilyn Monroe, Rata Worthy, VA Gardner, and Elizabeth Taylor wore red lipstick ND as a result, ninety-eight percent of women in the United States wore lipstick (Bargainer, 2013). Audrey Hepburn started wearing a subdued pink lipstick, a growing popularity in a color other than red (Foregoer, 2012). Esteem Lauder introduced their “gift with purchase” program, which contributed to a sign of popularity in growth of cosmetic sales.
They gave away mini lipsticks, eye shadows and face creams to help increase their growth. Studies show that during the ‘ass’s, women began to purchase more than one shade of lipstick to coordinate with various outfits. By 1959, Americans spent ninety-three million dollars on sixty-two million tubes of lipstick (Schaffer, 2006). Some airlines at this time required women to wear lipstick, saying it was part of their uniform (Bargainer, 2013). Lipstick ingredients also became safer, have reduced levels of carnaubas and beeswax by about ten percent and also reduced levels of broom acids to help in avoiding dry lips (Schaffer, 2006).
Production and manufacturing of lipstick was on the uprising, and new products, formulas, and application techniques continued to change the industry during this time (Musketeer, 2011). The sass’s continued to see changes, including a whole spectrum of lipstick colors, pushing red lipstick out of the spotlight. Beige and white lipstick colors became popular because of the Mod Era of this time (Bargainer, 2013). Until this time, the use of excrement and fish scales were still the methods of adding sparkle and shimmer to lipstick.
With the improvement of mica, iron oxides and titanium dioxide, fish scales became obsolete and these mentalist’s were the new source of glitter (Schaffer, 2006). The sass’s brought a shift to lipsticks social use, being a punk-rock era. Both men ND women used lipstick as a symbol of social rebellion. This era was a musical and cultural movement to express sex, violence, and general nonconformity (Schaffer, 2006). Men and women wore dark shades of lipstick, often seeing colors such as blue, purple or black (Bargainer, 2013).
By the late ‘ass’s, the disco style, another fad, came into play and lipstick played a roll in the disco image. A celebrity make-up artist, Way Bandy, had a “boogie-nights face” that revolved around deep, red lips (Schaffer, 2006). On the other hand, feminists protested during this time by not wearing lipstick. These feminists protested that lipstick and other make-up was degrading to women. Cosmetic manufacturers responded by creating “natural look” make-up, which helped boost make-up sales (Musketeer, 2011). In 1973, the Food and Drug .
Administration (FDA) exercised its authority under the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act to require that lipstick, along with all other cosmetics, intended for consumer sale come with full ingredient labeling. Any ingredients used for flavor or fragrance also needed to be included on the labeling (Bellies, 2014). As the sass’s rolled around, bold red lips had made their comeback. Icons like Madonna, Jerry Hall, and Nancy Reagan all wore red lipstick, and soon everyone followed the trend. M. A. C also introduced their first line of lipstick, and Madonna wore the “Russian Red” color during her “Like a Virgin” tour (Bargainer, 2013).
By the end of the sass’s, the cosmetics industry had grown into an 18 billion dollar industry. With the growing popularity, FDA regulations continued, along with color delighting and a new burst of state legislation (Schaffer, 2006). As the sass’s approached, red was still a go-to color for many, especially stars and supermodels. Shades of brown and plum also became popular with thanks to stresses like Drew Barrymore. During this decade, lipstick sales were booming, outnumbering sales of other cosmetic products four to one (Schaffer, 2006).
With more than three quarters of all women wearing lipstick in the United States, Clique was selling one lipstick for every second during their business hours (Musketeer, 2011). Cosmetic companies began to use advertisements featuring celebrities to sell lipstick. Some even made colors specifically designed by that celebrity, in hopes that the celebrity would wear and sell that color to all women, making lipstick an even more profitable item (Schaffer, 2006). With the “Grunge Look” coming into play, cosmetic companies were trying to think of ways to keep make-up a growing commodity.
Cosmetic manufacturer Urban Decay devoted a line to this look, giving names like “gunk” and “roach” to products to make it appealing (Brilliant, 2009). By the end of this decade, lipstick was an everyday item for most women. It became a seasonal trend and more and more women were becoming inspired to use lipstick. As the new century came, lipstick continued to grow in popularity. More and more models and celebrities were wearing it, some experimenting with new colors and fads. In 2006, it is estimated that lipstick sales earned $9. 4 billion, behind facial make-up, but ahead of eye make-up and nail products.
A poll in 2005 found that eighty percent of American women applied lipstick tallest once a day, about ten percent more than French women (Kitchens, 2013). Singer Lady Gaga became known for her bright red lips in 2009. In 2012, singer Taylor Swift released her album “Red,” stating later that she is “always wearing red lipstick” (Freeman, 2008). Fashion Icons continue to promote and sell lipstick, making pink a popular shade for 2014. Studies have been done recently, due to the use of dead and other metals found in lipstick. A 2011 study done concluded that some manufacturers were not concerned with the amounts of metals found in their lipstick.
Katharine Hammond, a professor of environmental health says that, “Some of the toxic metals are occurring at levels that could pose threats and health problems in the long run. ” Lipstick is absorbed by the user, if not wiped off the lips and an average user applies lipstick 2. 3 times a day. For the average user, this study found that lipstick could result in excessive exposure to chromium, which can be linked to tomcat tumors. Lead is not the main concern, finding that most lipstick had levels that were acceptable for daily use.
Hammond did suggest that lipstick be kept away from children, since they should have no exposure to lead or other metals. Overall, Hammond says this could be a concern, but with growing popularity and so many new advances, she knows it is unreasonable to tell women not to wear lipstick. Her main goal is to keep the FDA aware of what is going into these products and how to keep lipstick users safe. Unfortunately, there are no standards for metal content in cosmetics, and Hammond continues to work and investigate how it can affect users (Koch, 2013). Today, girls and women of all ages wear make-up, no matter what the occasion.
Celebrities and fashion icons are constantly setting the trends, and cosmetic companies are following those trends to keep up with the growing industry. Some celebrities partner up with cosmetic companies or even create their own line, to promote the use of lipstick. Lipstick itself has come a long way since its beginnings in 400 B. C. , and its advances and improvements are what have kept women so interested over the years. With so many Hades, brands, flavors, and other options to choose from, lipstick remains high on many women’s “must have” list.