The name of Abbasid is derived from Abbas, who was Mohammad’s uncle. It was one of the greatest of the Muslim empires, which was known as the golden age of Islamic culture. They ruled from 750 to 1258 AD. Their capital city was Baghdad. There were many caliphates who ruled Abbasid dynasty. the last caliph was killed by the Mongol when they invaded the city and took over. The Abbasids were known for their achievements such as trading routes with countries, education system, building new styles that show Islamic civilizations.
All these accomplishments made Abbasid empire as one of the longest and the strongest state at that time. The methods has been used to create the research paper are articles and journals to get all necessary information about Abbasid empire. The article named, “Baghdad: Metropolis of the Abbasid Caliphate” was published on Fordham University. Its purpose is is to show the rule of the Abbasid dynasty in the capitol city, Baghdad. It explains the accomplishments that the caliphs did through this golden period. Also, it shows the importance of the knowledge and intelligence at that time.
One of the most caliphs who wanted to be surrounded by learned men was Caliph Mamun. Because he wanted to expand the culture, knowledge, science, religion, and philosophy through out the capitol. It shows a great civilization was born in Baghdad with different knowledgeable caliphs during different times. The author of this article is ton Wiet, whose French historian who studied about Islamic art. He used to teach Arabic and Turkish language, then he became a professor in Cairo. He was a person who wanted to ago in depth into the Islamic culture, religion, and art.
Second source named “The Abassid Caliphate”, which was published on Jewish Virtual Library. It shows how the Abbasids took over the Umayyad dynasty. It shows a summary of events from the failing of the Umayyad state by the Abbasids, and how they started forming a powerful state in Baghdad. It takes a brief explanation about the most Caliph that wanted to built a strong, powerful, and knowledgeable state at his time who was trying to prove education and science. . Also, the article explains the decline of the Abbasid dynasty. The author of the article is Richard Hooker, who an American writer and surgeon.
The author wanted the readers to know about the process of taking over the Umayyad. It focuses more on the summarizing the events from falling of Umayyad state to the falling of the Abbasid dynasty. An article named, “The Abbasid Dynasty – Part II, Its Religious Development” published on Virginia Christian Alliance website. It focuses on the religious development during Abbasid dynasty. It is more about the collection of Quran and Hadith. It explains the process of the collection of the Quran and who are the people who worked to collect Quran. Also, the article mentioned the Shari’a.
Which is the code of Islamic jurisprudence, which explains the Islamic laws that all Muslims should follow it appropriately. It talks about Hadith, which mean an oral tradition that Mohammad said while he was spreading Islam. It is the second in authority after Quran. During Abbasid caliphate, Sirat was written at that time, which shows biography about Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) life and actions. And last thing that this article mentioned was Sunna, it is written traditions about Mohammad conduct, which are derived from Quran and Hadith. Daniel Woolf is the author of this article.
He is British/Canadian historian writer. He likes to write about Islamic History. This article offers a huge package of information about religious development through the Abbasid dynasty period. There is journal named, “Explorations on the Abbasids Political Culture in Pursuit of Sustainable System of Governance in the Muslim World. ” The journal provides information about the political system of the Abbasid dynasty, which had a big impact on the economic growth. It explains the insights of the political though and how the system was formed by the Abbasids, which was recognized as Golden Age of the Islamic period.
It explains about how Abbasids took over and started to control the Islamic nation. Also, it gives a brief explanation about building a strong political system, which had many positive impacts. Economic growth was the result of strong political system. Also, the journal shows the genealogy of the Abbasids, and shows each one the period that each was the caliph. Also, the author mentioned agriculture growth, taxation system, trading and opening routes with foreign countries. All these accomplishments were a key to spread Islam through out the World.
Abdi O. Shuriye is the writer of this journal. He has a PhD degree in social sciences. He teaches in International Islamic Malaysia University, and this journal was published in Roma, Italy. One of the sources is a chapter of the book named, “Chapter 40: Fall of The ‘Abbasid Caliphate. ” A Part of the book talks about the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate. It mentions how the Mongol invaded the dynasty. The book talks about what factors let the falling of the dynasty after it was recognized as the strongest Islamic period and had been described by the golden age.
It explains in details the taking over of the dynasty by the Mongol. The caliphate period ended after Mongol took over. Also, the book mentions what the Mongol did to the Islamic state when it was under there control. Ameer Ali is the author of the book, he was a political leader and was an author of number of Islamic history books. The book’s name is “A Short History of the Saracens. ” It was published in London in 1951. Last source named “”An Abbasid Education” was published on World Bulletin. It focuses on education during Abbasid caliphate.
It explains in details how the education got proved by the caliphs. Also, it explains the process of education was running starting from teaching their kids at home before age 6, and then the kids start to go to elementary school. It shows education was an important element to make a powerful and knowledgeable Islamic nation. The article focuses on different teachers and professors they had at that time. There were teachers to teach Quran, which is the most important goal to teach all people about their religion and God. Also, there were professors to teach logic, mathematics, and different sciences.
The author of the article is Mohanned Rahman. He has a PhD degree, assistant professor in University of New Orleans. The research that had been done on Abbasid empire is different from all these source, because it is a gathering information of everything that regard Abbasid period. It does not focus on one aspect of the empire but it simply focuses on each aspect of it. “An Arab historian states the following: “He looked for knowledge where it was evident, and thanks to the breadth of his conceptions and the power of his intelligence, he drew it from places where it was hidden.
He entered into relations with the emperors of Byzantium, gave them rich gifts, and asked them to give him books of philosophy which they had in their possession. These emperors sent him those works of Plato, Aristotle, Hippocrates, Galen, Euclid, and Ptolemy which they had. “ Mamun wanted to establish a powerful education system in the empire, which is a big factor that helps in the growth of the empire. He wanted to surround the empire by learned men, experts, translators, and genealogists. He was the one who is responsible to translate Greek books into Arabic language.
The most important achievement was building “House of Wisdom. ” It was a place where the scholars of science, religions, and ethics gathered to discuss specific topics about science. Caliph Mamun focused on science to improve the empire and create knowledgeable scholars for future from all sources that he gathered. All sources are available in schools, universities, and libraries and being taught during this time. He is one of the most caliphs who cared that much about education. Abbasid empire had a strong education system in schools. Where the child’s education starts at home. At the age of six, kids were admitted into schools.
Elementary schools were held in mosques, in private houses and sometimes in teacher’s own house. Besides the mosques, there were Maktabs which served as elementary schools. The curriculum includes reading, writing, grammar, traditions of the Prophet, elementary principles of arithmetic and some poems for elementary students. Senior students studied Qu’ranic criticism, the science of apostolic tradition, jurisprudence, theology, and literature. Advanced scholars studied Astronomy, Philosophy, Geometry, Music and Medicine as Mohammed Rahman mentioned in his article what each group in school needed to be taught.
Also, there was three types of teachers during Abbasid period. First type of teachers majored teaching Quran to children in the elementary schools. Second type called a tutor, who majored teaching sons, princes, and caliphs. Last type were called professors, who teach high levels of education. They were specialists in teaching of mathematics, logic, philosophy, and science. This type of education system that was used at that time gives an image how education was important to them to approve themselves as learned and educated empire in front of the World. To show how Islam encourages people to search for knowledge and intelligence.
The caliphs wanted to build a strong Islamic civilization through learning. There are many factors that made Abbasid empire as one of the most strongest and longest caliphates during Islamic history. The Abbasids moved the empire’s capital from Damascus to Baghdad. They depended on Persians in their overthrow of the Umayyads as was mentioned by Richard Hooker in his article. Abbasids started gaining power and being strong when they chose Baghdad as their capital city for Abbasid empire. It was the center of economic and trade. Many trading routes opened from Baghdad to go to other countries.
Baghdad was one of the most richest and beautiful cities out there, which helped in trading process. It was by the Tigris river, which helped economics. Abbasids chose Baghdad as their capital because its location is between two rivers which help in agriculture. Also, the rivers helped in transport goods from one place to another place. This is what made Baghdad the center of economics. In addition to all these accomplishments during Abbasid dynasty, there was religious development during this period. Hadith, which mean an oral tradition that Mohammad said while he was spreading Islam. It is the second in authority after Quran.
During Abbasid caliphate. Hadith’s subject matter was not only limited to religion, law and custom, but theology and political. Sirat was written at that time, which shows biography about Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) life and actions. It was written around the beginning of Abbasid empire as was mentioned by Daniel Woolf in his article. There is no complete original copy of Sirat document exist. Sunna, it is written traditions about Mohammad conduct, which are derived from Quran and Hadith. Abbasids used all these traditions that Mohammad created to his people and became tied to religious doctrine by these traditions.
An important element in Islam is Shariah. It is a complex system that has all the moral codes, which controls all the aspects of Muslims’ life. It is the law of Islam. All these laws in Shariah were taken from the actions and the words of Mohammad (peace be upon him). Abbasids collected and organized the religious sources to help their empire to grow in God’s way and Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) words. Abbasid empire ended in 1258 AD when the Mongol invaded and destroyed the dynasty. “These people were the Mongols or Tartars as called by their contemporaries.
Their invasion inflicted more suffering on the human race than any other incident recorded in history. They lived in a wild and primitive state of society. “They are,” says Matthew Paris, “inhuman and beastly, rather monsters than men, thirsty for and drinking blood, tearing and devouring the flesh of dogs and men… They are without human laws. ”  As reading the description of Mongol invasion of Abbasid empire, especially, when it says how Mongols were thirsty for drinking blood. They wanted to kill people to take over the empire. They were without mercy. Beside the invasion, there were some factors that helped in destroying the dynasty.
One of the reasons, they had problems in economics, which is the money outcome decreased and contributed in empire’s decline. “After the caliphate of alMa’mun, Abbasid power began to noticeably decline. The cost of running a massive empire and maintaining a large bureaucracy required steady revenues, and as the authority of the caliphate diminished it was able to collect fewer taxes”  The empire was shrinking without money. It is impossible to keep the empire strong as it was before without supplement of money to people to work. The achievements that were during Abbasid empire made this period as the golden age of Islamic state.
This particular period of time shows how Abbasid caliphs focused on education, science, building styles, and philosophy. The most caliph who took care of this was Mamun. Baghdad’s location between two rivers helped the empire to grow fast in economic and trade between countries. Also, Abbasid empire focused on religious development to make people understand the right way to practice Islam and to follow God’s and Mohammad’s (peace be upon him) way. Religious development was by collecting and organizing Hadith, sirat, shariah, Islamic traditions, and the most important is Quran into documents to be available to Muslims to read.
All these factors helped Abbasid to be recognized as an educated, organized, and stronger empire which lasts for a long time. Mongols invaded the empire and destroyed it. They had no human laws by killing people and destroying the empire to take over and start controlling the city. Economics decreases, and money decreased too which led to the shrinking of the Abbasid empire. It was another factor for destroying the most strongest and longest empire throughout the caliphates.