History of the Korean Broadcasting
History of the Korean Broadcasting Early Stage(~1926) The first broadcasting of Korea was carried out by the Bureau of Post of the Chosun Trustee Government in 1924. At that time, the Bureau of Post acquired receiver and sender for the experimental broadcasting. The first experimental broadcasting was successful in November 1924 with 750 Kh/50W, and from 1925 on the Bureau of Post Wireless Laboratory broadcasted 4 times a week. the following year (1926) the Kyungsung Broadcasting Corporation was incorporated as a non-profit organization.
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Beginning(1927~1944) After a long period of experiments the formal broadcasting was launched in February 16, 1927, and the first wireless relay was introduced in June of the same year. From 1930 on, with the increase of power Two separate channels, one for Korean and one for Japanese, were installed. Jungdong Station was improved, and Yonhee Broadcasting Station was improved, and Yonhee Broadcasting Station was built. In 1933 the Yonhee Station sent two channels with the channel one in Japanese and the channel two in Korean.
The original Kyungsung Broadcasting Corporation changed its name to the Kyungsung Central Broadcasting as a consequence of the expansion of the broadcasting network in 1935. In 1937, after two years, with the change of the frequency and increase of the power, the second broadcasting could be monitored countrywide by a simple receiver. Reshuffling and Reconstruction(1953~1960) Since the Korean independence and the Japanese surrender in the World War II, the second broadcasting has been changed to the first one with Korean language.
After three years, in 1948 with establishment of the new government of the Republic of Korea, the Kyungsung Central Broadcasting was renamed to the National Broadcasting Corporation and operated under the auspices of the Ministry of Information. The Korean War in 1950 tumed the progress of the Korea Broadcasting System into a chaos. Despite the tumultuous experienced by the war, Korea became a regular member of the International Frequency Conference, and in 1952 became a member country of the ITU.
During these tumultuous periods, the Chungjoo Broadcasting Station, Jeju Broadcasting Station and Namwon Broadcasting Station were newly opened. Growth(1961~1972) The Seoul International Broadcasting Center was established to promote gradually from the medium ware overseas broadcasting to the short wave. Along with this. new private broadcasting companies sprouted. In the religious sectors. the Christian Broadcasting System(CBS). International Gospels Broadcasting(HLKX). and in the commercial sectors, Busan Cultural Broadcasting(HLKV) were opened.
Under the special settlement, the Army Broadcasting, United Nations Army Headquarters Broadcasting(VUNC), American Forces Korean Network(AFKN) were opened subsequently. During these periods, a new Television broadcasting appeared which hallmarked the technological breakthrough appeared which hallmarked the technological breakthrough in the broadcasting history. In 1956 Huang Tai Yong set up a private commercial television station(HLKZ-TV) by combining commercial concept with cultural aspects, but the HLKZ-TV had soon after a financial trouble and merged into the Daihan Broadcasting System.
IN 1957 US Army opened AFKN-TV Transition(1973~1979) The Seoul International Broadcasting Center opened East South Asia Broadcasting in 1962, Vietnamese short wave Broadcasting 1964, German language broadcasting in 1961, Spanish language broadcasting in 1962. Finally the nationwide television broadcasting has been started with commercial advertisements. Meantime, Dong A Broadcasting(HLKJ), Dongyang Broadcasting(HlKC), TBCtelevision(HLCE), MBC Telvision(HLAC), and FM Station were born in these periods. In order to be a part of Satellite Communication Age, Korea participated in international relay via satellite in 1970.
A typical example is to receive the Apollo 13 Moon Expedition through a communication satellite for 100 minutes. Transition(1973~1979) With television in full activity, the public KBS as well as the private broadcasting were in their zenith. Most important of all, the Korean Broadcasting Corporation was opened in March 3, 1973, and construction of a new broadcasting complex was under way in Youido, and the Complex was completed in March 1976. A historical broadcasting was lunched in November 1st. Overseas short wave broadcasting station was built in Kimje, and short wave transmission facilities were rapidly expanded.
Internationally Korea received frequency band as well as orbit for the future satellite broadcasting. This became the landmark of satellite communication plans for DBS(Direct Broadcasting System). In 1974 Korea became a associate member of European Broadcasting Union(EBU). Maturity(1980~1990) Since 1980, one of the great transformation in Korean broadcasting history was to consolidate all the broadcasting companies under one umbrella. Under the recommendation of the Korean Broadcasting Association, the KBS took over all five private broadcasting companies consisting of TBS, DBS, Korea FM, Jonil Broadcasting, and Sohai Broadcasting.
The Basic Press Control Act became effective in 1981, and the Broadcasting Commercial Advertisement Control Act was enacted. Experimental broadcasting of color television has been tested in December 1980, and in 1981 a new additional UHF channel for the high school educational broadcasting was taken over to form the Third Television Station. A new age of multiplex broadcasting was opened for the multi-sound broadcasting and the teletext broadcasting. Automation of transmission and relay was also accomplished.
New broadcasting companies in this period were born including Seoul Broadcasting System(SBS), Education Broadcasting System(EBS), peace Broadcasting Company(PBS), Buddhist Broadcasting System(BBS), and Traffics Broadcasting System(TBS) with new FM stations. Future Broadcasting(1991~) It is difficult to predict what kind of course the future broadcasting will take, however we may imagine (1) the more diversified use of the existing broadcasting radiowave and (2) introduction of new media through research and development.
New media in wireless system include AM Stereo Broadcasting, Satellite Broadcasting, and High Definition Television(HDTV), and in the cable system, videotext, teleconference, video information communication and Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting(ISDB). In satellite broadcasting, Korea joined INTELSAT in 1967, and lunched its first Mugoonghua(Rose of Sharon, the korean national flower) satellite, and, from July 1st, 1996, entered domestic satellite broadcasting service. the next step is of course the HDTV. Inventions in Korean Broadcasting History
Digital Multimedia Broadcasting(DMB) Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB) is a digital radio transmission technology developed in South Korea as part of the national IT project for sending multimedia such as TV, radio and datacasting to mobile devices such as mobile phones. This technology, sometimes known as mobile TV, should not be confused with Digital Audio Broadcasting which was developed as a research project for the European Union. DMB was originally developed in South Korea as the next generation digital technology to replace the FM radio.
The world’s first official mobile TV service started in South Korea in May 2005, although trials were available much earlier. It can operate via satellite (S-DMB) or terrestrial (T-DMB) transmission. 3D Television (3DTV) A 3D television (3DTV) is a television set that employs techniques of 3D presentation, such as stereoscopic capture, multi-view capture, or 2D-plus-depth, and a 3D display – a special viewing device to project a television program into a realistic three-dimensional field. 3DTVs have been introduced in the markets by Panasonic, LG and Samsung.
Major Broadcasting Companies in Korea KBS(Korea Broadcasting System_ Korea Broadcasting System is the oldest and biggest Broadcasting station in Korea. This public broadcasting network is best known for nightly newscasts and lavish historical dramas. KBS is a ‘public organization’ that, by law, receives public funding from the Korean Government but is independently managed. As mentioned on the Korean Constitution, the president of KBS is recommended by its board of directors to the President of Korea. Political parties in Korea have the right to name members of the board of directors of KBS.
Since the President of South Korea usually has leadership over the members of the ruling party, KBS’s president is considered to be designated by the president of Korea. This procedure has incurred worries of political intervention in KBS’ governance and has led to many thinking that the current system of recruiting needs to be revised. SBS(Seoul Broadcasting Station) Seoul Broadcasting Station (SBS) KRX: 034120 is a national South Korean television and radio network. It is the only private commercial broadcaster with a wide regional Network to operate in the country.
On March 17, 2009, the company legally became known as SBS, changing its corporate name from Seoul Broadcasting Station. (?? ?? ). Seoul Broadcasting Station is still commonly used today. SBS TV transmits on Channel 6 for Analog and Channel 16 for Digital. MBC(Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation) Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) is one of four major national South Korean television and radio networks. Munhwa is the Korean word for “culture”. Its flagship terrestrial television station is channel 11 on VHF in Seoul.
Twice government-owned, the network is owned by the Foundation of Broadcast Culture (which owns 70% of the company’s stock), while the Jung-Su Scholarship Foundation owns 30%. MBC receives no government subsidy, and derives its income almost entirely from commercial advertising. It has 19 regional stations, and 10 subsidiaries. The network evolved from Busan Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation, the first private broadcasting corporation in the country. As of 2011, MBC has over 4,000 employees. It has provided terrestrial digital TV service in the ATSC format since 2001, and T-DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) service since 2005.
EBS(Educational Broadcasting System) Educational Broadcasting System(???????? ) or EBS is an educational television and radio network covering South Korean territory. EBS strives to supplement school education and promote lifelong education for everyone in Korea. Korean Drama Korean drama (Korean: ????? ) refers to televised dramas, in a miniseries format, produced in the Korean language. Many of these dramas have become popular throughout Asia and have contributed to the general phenomenon of the Korean wave, known as “Hallyu”, and also “Drama Fever” in some countries.
Most popular Korean dramas have also become popular in other parts of the world such as Latin America, the Middle East, and elsewhere. Some of the most internationally popular Korean dramas are Winter Sonata, Dae Jang Geum, Full House, Stairway to Heaven, My Girl, Love Story in Harvard, Autumn in My Heart, My Lovely Sam Soon, Delightful Girl Choon-hyang, Yi San, Boys Over Flowers, You’re Beautiful, Brilliant Legacy, Queen Seondeok, The 1st Shop of Coffee Prince, King of Baking, Kim Tak Goo, IRIS, Personal Preference, Secret Garden, Dream High and Athena: Goddess of War.
King of Baking, Kim Tak Goo had hit an outstanding 50. 8 with its last episode on KBS. The genres that most internationally popular Korean dramas belong to are often romance, romantic comedy and historical dramas. An exception includes IRIS and Athena: Goddess of War, which are spy action thrillers. Most other Korean dramas popular throughout Asia or beyond are either romances, romantic comedies or historical. Popular Korean historical dramas almost all hold a serious tone, while Korean dramas with a modern setting have a balanced share of both serious and more lighthearted themes.
Genre of Korean Drama There are two main genres of Korean dramas, generally speaking. The first genre is similar to soap operas but without the never ending plot and frank sexual content. These dramas typically involve conflicts such as single and marital relationships, money bargaining, relationships between in-laws (usually between the mother-in-law and daughter-in-law), and often complicated love triangles while the female hero usually falls in love with the main character who may treat her badly since the beginning, instead of the one who always cares for her.
These dramas last anywhere from 16 episodes to over 100 (most often not exceeding 200). Most plots of Korean soap operas are similar where a love triangle is always present. The other main genre is Korean historical dramas (also known as sa geuk), which are fictionalized dramatizations of Korean history. Korean historical dramas typically involve very complex story lines with elaborate costumes, sets and special effects. Martial arts, sword fighting and horsemanship are frequently a big component of Korean historical dramas as well.
Korean dramas, whether the historical dramas or modern dramas, typically are characterized by excellent production quality, characters with depth, intelligent scriptwriting but largely relies on the use of archetypal characters. As they are designed as family entertainment to satisfy a broad audience, there are typically a combination of human interest story elements across most of the historical dramas – interwoven themes of family, romance, friendship, martial arts, political strategy, wars, trade, etc. These stories are, therefore, usually of interest to all – women and men, young and old.
Entertainment Korean entertainment programs consist of four main genre: real variety, talent competition, comedy show, talk show and music concert. Especially, real variety show is the trend in Korean broadcasting industry. KBS, MBC and SBS, three major broadcasting companies, are competing with one another with their real variety shows. Happy Sunday Happy Sunday (Korean: ?? ??? ) is a Korean reality-variety show shown on the KBS2 network, which competes directly against MBC’s Sunday Sunday Night and SBS’s Good Sunday line-up. It consist of two segments: 1 Night and 2 Days and Qualifying Men.
In the segment called 1 Night and 2 Days, hosted by Kang Ho Dong, the members go on an overnight trip to various places of interest in Korea. The aim of the segment is to recommend holiday destinations to its viewers. Qualifying Men is a show where a group of mostly middle-aged male celebrities try to complete missions (deemed to be of a quality required of a “qualifying man”) given by the Producer or sometimes thought of by the members. Infinite Challenge Infinite Challenge (Muhan Dojeon in Korean) is a Korean television entertainment program, distributed and syndicated by MBC.
As of June and July 2009, it still has the largest market share for its timeslot, between 13. 8 percent and 19. 7 percent of Korean television viewers watched Muhan Dojeon at 6:40 PM every Saturday night. This makes it the top free-to-air television program on Saturday evening, and also the most viewed non-drama program in South Korea every week (excluding special sporting events, since November 2006, with the exception of January 2009, (April and May 2010). It has kept the same scheduled time, since first airing in 2005. Since 2009, it lasts for roughly 70 minutes, excluding ten minutes of advertising.
Episodes are also frequently rerun on several Korean cable broadcasting channels. Since February 19, 2011 (237th episode), this programme has been aired with High Definition(HD). Good Sunday Good Sunday (Korean: ???? ?? ) is a South Korean reality-variety show shown on the SBS network, which competes directly against MBC’s Our Sunday Night and KBS2’s Happy Sunday line-up. Running Man and Kim Yu-na’s Kiss and Cry are aired in this program. Running Man (Korean: ??? ) was first broadcast on July 11, 2010. This show is classified as an “urban action variety”; a never-before-seen new genre of variety shows.
The MCs and guests play games and carry out missions in the landmark, and are required to win missions to earn Running Balls. The team with Running Balls will win, while the losing team will be punished. Kim Yu-na’s Kiss ; Cry (Korean: ???? ?? ? ??? ) is a new survival audition program featuring champion figure skater, Kim Yu-na. Ten celebrities and ten professional skaters will form couples and challenge each other in figure skating to become the winning team, who will be performing with Kim Yu-na at a special ice show in August.