The Korean War
Us followed the priority of govern in WI. US engagement in WI began in Asia, but Roosevelt declared US priority in Ell-fought a major war both in EX. and against SPY. History: With a long history, US played an important role in Asia even before WWW to the 19th century. After Civil War, the country was committed to a policy of rapid industrialization-by the end of the 19th century, US became the largest economy in the world, and it expanded its reach to Latin America and to the Asia. US became a great naval power while deferring Britain Royal Navy to be a larger force.
In 1898, the Spanish-American war broke out, US took possession of Spain’s Pacific colonial-the Philippine Archipelago. Use’s first and most important imperial possession in Asia (79 ¤Ii*¦) valuable harbor and air base. In 1853, Marshall Perry opened Japan- which remained close for centuries-for the first time. It triggered Meijer Restoration- which formed the basis of modern SPY-first modern non-western to master the technique of modernity. China: US proclaimed open door policy at the outset of the 20th century.
EX. imperial powers had carved out sphere of influence there. Through this policy, US demanded privileges there comparable to those of the areas EX. sought themselves. From WI till now, US Ana has dominated the Pacific. Ending the Korea War: as a divided country like Germany. Militaries like Germany, a frontline state like Germany, an America client, South Korea a economic miracle. 1 1 5В±-also impacted three other parts of Asia-Japan During War, a tragedy misconception or miscalculation. US miscalculated with Japan just like EX. did with Germany.
Wanted to stop Japan from attacking China, but provoked the attack on Pearl Harbor, After JP became US ally and military base. US signed a security treaty with SPY in 1950, similar in many ways like NATO in Europe. ( Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan, JP became and maintained Use’s closest ally. The Korean War gave Japan a boost to its relation with the US. Also an economic boost – US procured raw materials in SPY, SPY manufacturing boomed, helping its economy to take off in a sustainable growth. In this sense, Korean War was resembled to the Marshall Plan in Europe.
Also estrangement BTW Soviet and SPY-island disputes China became an adversary. The Communist intervention of the Korean war changed US attitude to Aching Aka-seek and Chinese civil war. The Seventh Fleet set the tone for two decades of hostility BTW Beijing and Washington. The TWO issue became a lasting in the Set the stage for twenty years of hostility BTW Washington and Beijing 1995-96 triggered by Lee Tang Huh The Taiwan Issue became the most important enduring feature of OCW, not anticipated at that time (in retrospect, each may miscalculated the other side’s intention.
Mao may acted as a defensive way, but US regarded it as an expansionary and acted in accordingly) Chinese invasion convinced US that the Communist China was offensive and US reacted accordingly-US containment in Asia-which affected US participation of Vietnam-also arrears of estrangement 22%-South East Asia-US viewed it as expansion of Communism – global anti- unionism action-began to see colonial war in Indochina. That might not have happened if Korean War hasn’t happened, Korea, China, Vietnam and Japan (islands with Russian) both divided 2. T made OCW in American eyes a military conflict (implementation of OCW), while before 1950 the US see it as a political conflict 1. US believed the Communists are conducting outright military assault-coordinated Soviet led military campaign to push back the frontiers of the West, to conquer areas around the world-to exert influence in conquered areas. 2. This led to an increase in military presence, deployment and expenditure (tripled in 18 months, most went to ELI) NCSC-document 68(National Security Council) co-written by Paul Unite Until K, US public opinion remained psychologically demoralized.
The war (together with Berlin blockade, Sputnik in 1957, Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962) changed that. In response to crisis, real or perceived, substantial change took place in APP. Increased spending-much went to E to beef up defense against USSR there. 3. NATO was the most important 10 during OCW era. It was the American commitment to EX.-to keep the Russians out, Americans in and Germans down. Deterring USSR, engaging US, and making sure Germany do not rise again. The last is very important- prevent German rising again from dominating Europe) 37′ The German Problem-containing and absorbing German power-finally solved by NATO 3830 EX.-Schuman Plan European Coal and Steel Community (EXECS) European Economic Community (SEC) European Union (ELI) now 27 countries Masochist Treaty: to keep a unified Germany anchored within Europe NATO set the seal of US-USSR arms contention-strategic analysis Burden sharing-US feel it did too much, want EX. did more. 3. At introduced strategy lexicon and US political life the concept and practice of LIMITED WAR. 3′ violated US tradition (unconditional surrender)-Korea stalemate- guerilla war not comprehensive victory tradition of non-use of nuclear weapon began there (43-45) – avoid escalation casualty; moral and political high ground; strategic belief that USSR is stronger in normal weapons public dissatisfaction with the war- rumored Communism subversion-McCarthy OCW and domestic election politics- Trauma’s popularity plummeted-not to run again-Eisenhower won (US people don’t like failure) end of Korea War(Lech) Lech Origins of Strategy 72″ Now military issue is not so important, but at early OCW, it is very important and milliamp.
NATO could not be what it was supposed to be-come to the rescue of EX. if necessary three functions of naval power 1 . Controlling the sealants-solos (send men and materials to wage wars) 2. Power projections (aircrafts) 3. War-fighting form the backdrop for trade and global economic order nuclear power-Manhattan Project became controversial now; at that time not so controversial for four reasons: 1 . War was going on-bloody; extreme casualty and no sympathy to the other side 2. Total war- use every available resource to win 3. AS set the goal of unconditional surrender-US was considering invade Japan-avoid million casualty (estimated) of US army 4. Used to shorten the war Truman declared that he would be impeached if he had the bomb but not used it. 1 . Revisionism: Atomic Diplomacy, SPY would have surrendered even if US did not use the bomb. 2. The real crime of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was the killing of civilians, but this was nothing new. Nazi already murdered tens of millions of people, so did SPY. US and UK never conducted massacres. But they did destroy some cities including Dressed and Tokyo. Morally wrong? 3.
It demonstrated the extraordinary destructive power of nuclear weapons-nuclear AIBO Lech missing (count strategy and begin of Third World) Lech Cot 10 The Third World Pakistan East Asia-two wars related to decentralization Africa-less involved; two humanitarian assistance (failed states) 1960 a pro- Soviet regime came-Castor’s Cuba-Latin America Middle East (a separate lecture)- stakes are higher due to proximity of Europe and USSR-strategic position- indispensable oil-ideology counted nothing, purely geopolitical issue-US allies are not democracies; First Persian Gulf War General observations: 1 .
Some parts are more important-Latin America and Middle East consistently so; Asia was of paramount importance until the end of Vietnam; Africa and Southeast Asia less important 2. East-West concerns were superimposed by US and USSR and rarely do they fit well with local conditions. Countries that US supported are better described as clients rather than allies. 3. Over time, there was a trend of military disengagement. Kennedy “bear any burden to support liberty’-he was thinking the third world. Vietnam disillusioned the country.
As OCW progress, the third world seems to US policymakers less important and more costly. 4. Major US failures in third world-Vietnam, Cuba and Iran. Anti-American side utilized nationalism. US found itself on the wrong side of nationalism. (recurrent even after OCW) Brief overview by decade sass-The time US viewed third world most seriously. Kennedy dam saw it as central battleground of OCW. Two track policy: Economic development and military “counter- insurgency’ (reading) Foreign assistance became institutionalized-SAID formed.
Achievement: Economically, mixed at best. Even if echo growth took place, not sure it has SST to do with US. Then Vietnam swallowed up everything. Counter- insurgency: came from the concern that great military danger was not direct assault like INK in 1950, but rather subversion and guerrilla warfare. China and Vietnam brought such need; revived in Iraq; positive model: Greece and Philippines Fad rather than commitment No war can be prosecuted by US gob without consolidate public support. SASS Third World’s push for a new into economic order-wealth of the world was worse against third world-there should be a reform-global oil crisis-small country seems to have a hand in into economic affairs-but ultimately failed, not enough power; oil cartel collapsed In retrospect, not common interest and not uniformity in action. By the sass, debt crisis swept across the third world. Markets lost and foreign exchanges decreased SASS Two major trends: .
Reagan Doctrine – came from right and focus on military Insurgence movements against Communists; in Afghanistan and Africa It became controversial domestically. Can claim to be successful since it coincided with the collapse of USSR 2. Emphasis on human rights – from left, on promoting US values (Carter dam and then Republicans; Communism against human rights) Wartime solidarity-countries that were against Soviet deserve US support regardless of domestic system-undemocratic regime-but in Vietnam failed. Now the concept of human rights is widespread.
Conflict: power and principle-when it comes to Chile, Greece, South Africa/Korea Conservatives: support these undemocratic countries Liberals: follow the principals, this tells US apart; anti-colonist This matter was also used on China. The Crisis of Nuclear Age Most importantly, nuclear war did not happen. Avoid situations that the two have to shoot, so what we have is crisis: nuclear weapons seem close to be used. (Mascara: crisis management; limit rather than use force) Crisis loomed inevitable-both sides strove to evade Three characteristics: 1 . Mime urgency-deadline 2. Strategic in the technical term-each side of conduct affects the outcome 3. Outcome was unknown Closet brush: Berlin 1961 (second one, first in 949-50); Cuba-1962; 1973 Middle East War First time: offensive; to stop the division Second time: USSR on the defense; goal was to preserve the division of Berlin Kennedy dam-the crisis years; why crisis prone? 1 . Rivalry BTW the two at its height-ideologically-Khrushchev adventure, cynical; Kennedy-most combative president during OCW 1961 meeting BTW K and K – K outperformed Kennedy, but miscalculated.
Berlin-at the heart of OCW to both Presented an anomaly: The allies have access to the city, but the movement of troops meant that the city of Berlin was 80 miles inside East-Germany. Exposed and alienable, no way to defend; Ultimate domino-like Vietnam Stop the flowing of people to the West, otherwise would be a collapse of Soviet position in Europe. Impact on Germany Aftermath-instead of being east-west tension, it became a tranquility place; existing of NATO led to the end of the problem.
NATO contained USSR, but US presence contained Germany as well. Normalization of the two Germany-detente in Europe (US: arms control) Social democratic-full legitimacy Cot 11 make up session-Cuban Missile Crisis closet brush the world to a nuclear war USSR deployed missiles in Cuba capable of reaching Us-naval blockade to Cuba- Soviet Union did withdraw the missile (see reading) Why considered the ultimate crisis?