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Car Crash Research Paper

The car that has been chosen for this ANCAP Crash Investigation is a Mitsubishi Lancer, see Figure 1. They retail from around $21,000, are available in multiple models. The base model Lancer is driven by a 2. 0L petrol, DOHC 16 valve engine, that can take it to a top speed of 200km/h. This engine puts out a total 110kW@6000rpm and maximum torque of 197NM@4200rmp. It comes with either a 5-speed manual or automatic gear box, that implements paddle shifters. It weighs in at 1. 8 tons wet. The Lancer has a 59L fuel tank, which lasts around 850 km. All models come with a sports mode, full set of disc brakes, sport uspension and are 2WD. An optional body kit is also available upon purchase. Additionally, the Mitsubishi Lancer includes extensive interior, comfort, convenience, media, safety and security features.

Some of the security features include anti-theft engine immobiliser and auto door and steering locks. The Lancer is a very affordable, fun and safe car. The most important safety features that come stock with the Lancer include, driver and front SRS side and front airbags, full curtain SRS airbags on all the windows, power steering, hill start assist, traction control, reinforced side and body impact beams, reversing sensors and amera, seatbelts, child lock and back doors, and three child seat anchor points. Furthermore, the brake system comes stock with, ABS, smart brake control, electronic brake distribution (EBD) and emergency brake assist (EBA). 1 The Mitsubishi Lancer is more than just a powerful engine and amazing looks. It has numerous sophisticated safety features, that make it the perfect family or personal car to purchase.

All these features ensure that, if the worst should happen, you’ll be protected. The Lancer received the highest possible marks, thanks to the strategically placed crumple zones, in the fontal, ide, rear and rollover impact tests. The integrated reversing camera system, is projected onto a small screen in the middle of the dash board. The screen includes distance markers, guidelines and automatic object and blind spot avoidance system. In the Lancer there are 7 SRS airbags, positioned on the front, front seat, side curtain and driver’s knee. This car comes stock, as do most cars, with head restraints and 3-point inertia seat belts. The front seat belts have automatic tensioners, when they are tugged quickly.

This ensures that in a crash situation, the passenger and driver will not be flung out he front windscreen and will stay in their seat. The front seatbelt height can also be adjusted, to suit every driver. All seats in the Lancer are race-spec moulded, so that the passengers are comfortable and stay inside the confines of their seat in an accident. Additionally, all three back seats come stock with child seat anchor points. However, since the Lancer is not specifically designed to be a family car, there are no front facing child seat anchor points, or integrated child safety seats. In addition to the safety features mention above, the Lancer still has multiple key aspects put in place to keep passengers safe.

Since the Lancer is an all-wheel-drive (AWD) car, the differential has been designed so that it can be completely locked. This ensures that all the wheels turn at the same speed all of the time. This reduces wheel spin, and provides the car with more grip, which is essential in crash situations. The Lancer’s body is designed to have Anti-Submarining guards over the wheels, to minimise aquaplaning in wet weather conditions. The automatic telemetry unit inside constantly records data and tunes the Lancer’s engine to suit it’s surroundings. Thus, reducing the chance of losing control or crashing as a result of the engine.

Furthermore, all windows in the Lancer are equipped with shatter resistant, laminated glass. The world renowned ANCAP safety test revealed that all of these safety measures definitely have an effect of how safe the Mitsubishi Lancer is. The Lancer received a five-star safety rating from ANCAP, and a total score of 33. 56 out of 37. The Lancer’s received a score of 15. 56 out of 16 for the front impact test, 14 out of 16 for side impact, good Whiplash Protection, marginal Pedestrian Protection and a 2 out of 3 for the effectiveness of the seat belts. The full list of test results can be seen in Appendix A (attached to back).

Inertia is the property of matter that remains in rest or motion, unless acted upon by an external force. If an object is in motion and it suddenly stops, this is known as a change in motion. For example, if a car is in motion and suddenly crashes into a tree, the car changes motion and abruptly decelerates to a stop. Seatbelts have been fitted in cars, so that if there ever was a crash, the driver and passengers will be able to survive the abrupt change of motion. Being strapped into the car, ensures that the passengers share the same state of motion as the car. As the car accelerates, the passengers accelerate with it and vice ersa.

Additionally, as the car maintains a constant speed, the passengers maintain a constant speed as well. Seatbelts guarantee that the passengers stay in the same state of motion as the car if it was to crash, and not fly through the front windscreen and continue to move until they hit something. Part 2: 1. What does ANCAP stand for? The acronym ANCAP stands for Australasian New Car Assessment Program. 2. What is the purpose of the ANCAP crash tests? ANCAP safety tests rate every new car out of five starts, that is available to purchase in Australia and New Zealand. The tests re internationally recognised and put every safety aspect of the car to the test. The test results represent the level of safety a vehicle provides for the passengers and surrounding pedestrians in the event of a crash. As well as, the ability of the cars technology to avoid a crash. 7 3. What should the structure of the car do (or not do) in the event of a crash? In a five star ANCAP rated car, the structure of the car in the event of a frontal crash, should keep its overall shape. Additionally, wherever the central damage is, the car should not completely crumple and squash the occupants. 7 4. How are dummies used in a crash?

Crash test dummies are calibrated instruments that are used in crash tests. The dummies are used in place of humans, when it would be too dangerous to use real human test subjects. Crash test dummies record how a human body would react in the same scenario, without hurting a human being. 7 5. Explain the ratings used on a car. To achieve the maximum 5 star ANCAP safety rating, a vehicle must perform to the highest level across all crash tests and assessments. Theoretically, the higher the star rating, the safer the car should be. This is true, however, 5 star rated cars still have flaws and areas that are not completely safe.

The higher the start rating, the higher the predicted survival rate for passengers, in the event of a crash. 7 6. Explain why an electric car like a tesla has a higher rating than a petrol or diesel car? Firstly, electric cars do not carry any flammable unleaded fuel. However, Li-ion Batteries used in electric cars have been known to occasionally explode and catch fire, like petrol. There are electronic sensors in place and coolant systems in cars like a Tesla, to keep the battery safe, in the case of an accident. Multiple batteries, instead of one big one is also safer. Therefore, electric cars are safer, despite their batteries, ecause they do not carry flammable fuels. It is easy to stop a battery from catching fire and exploding, however, it is inevitable to stop petrol from exploding in a crash.

7. What do air bags do in the event of a collision? What is their purpose? In the event of a crash, airbags explode within milliseconds with the force of a rocket, to cushion the impact for the driver and passengers. Usually there are front facing airbags in the front two seats, and side facing and curtain airbags everywhere. Airbags minimise the risk of whiplash in a crash, and the force passengers get hit by an object, or hit an object.

Additionally, curtain airbags stop glass from shattering on the occupants of a car and cutting them. 8. Describe the chemical reaction in an air bag. The inflation system reacts within milliseconds of hitting something in a crash, thanks to multiple sensors. Air bags are inflated with the same amount of force as a rocket. Sodium azide (NaN3) and potassium nitrate (KNO3) react extremely quickly and produce a large pulse of hot nitrogen gas. This gas inflates the bag, which literally bursts out of the steering wheel or dashboard as it expands. About a second later, the bag starts to deflate, because it has holes in it.

If there were no holes in the bag, it would quickly explode in the passengers face. 9 9. Are there problems with these? If an airbag explodes on the face of a small person or child, it can easily break their necks. Other common injuries from airbags include, knocked out teeth, broken noses, bruised eyes and broken ribs. The airbags need this much force to reduce the impact of an abrupt change in motion in a crash. All these injuries are still better than the injuries or death, you would face, without having any airbags in a crash. 10. The number of road users is much greater in recent years than ever before.

What do the statistics say about the road toll over the last 30 years? In 1970, when the cars were not as safe as they are today, the total road toll in Australia was 3,798 fatalities. 30 Years later, the cars are more sophisticated and a lot safer. The road toll reflects this. In Australia last year, only 1,209 people died as a result of a motor accident. The statistics clearly say that the safety measures being put into cars, are definitely reducing the road toll.

11. Give a reason for the change. The main reason that the road toll has drastically decreased over the past 30 years, is because cars are a lot safer and more sophisticated. The next generation of cars will be able to drive themselves, which will hopefully bring the road time down even further. 12. What is a crumple zone and how does it work? Modern cars are now designed with ‘crumple zones’. Crumple zones are specific areas that are designed to collapse and change shape, in a crash. They absorb and redistribute as much of the crash energy as possible. With the use of crumple zones, in a crash the cabin of the vehicle remains intact, to protect the passengers. Whereas, the crumple zones are damaged and crumple instead. The idea of crumple zones came about in 1959, by Bela Barenyi.

Bela was an engineer working for DaimlerBenz. Crumple zones vary from car to car can be made to withstand large or small impacts. 13. Why are seat belts effective? Seatbelts are effective, because they ensure that all the passengers have the same state of motion, as the car. As the car accelerates, the passengers accelerate with it and vice versa. Additionally, as the car maintains a constant speed, the passengers maintain a constant speed as well. If seatbelts were not worn in a crash, passengers would fly through the front windscreen of the car, and most likely perish.

Seatbelts and airbags are the main reasons, why the road toll is decreasing.. cons 14. How can cars become safer in the future? Mention 2 physical safety features yet to come. In the future, cars will become safer by integrating more sensors, that will help it drive itself. The idea of self-driving cars will be safer, because they will completely eliminate human error. Additionally, if cars were able to tly communicate their surroundings and what they were doing to other cars, it would make the roads safer. For example, if a car suddenly braked heavily, it would be able to tell the car behind it, and warn them. This warning would avoid a potential crash.

15. How can we make the driver drive safer? If a type of fire and shock proof transparent cacoon was integrated into cars, it would most certainly keep the driver safer, in a crash situation. Additionally, if training programs were made compulsory for new drivers, this would make the roads safer. L Platers merely need to pass a theory exam to get their license. It would be more beneficial if they were trained practically as well. If Defensive Driving courses were made compulsory, drivers would become more experienced in how to avoid and recover from crash situations.

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