Introduction: A balanced chemical equation has reactants and product that has to represent a formulae. The amount of each element, number needs to be the same in either side of the equation. (E.g., HCl(aq)+NaHCO3(s) reacts to produce NaCl(aq)+H2O(1) +CO2(g), this is the equation given for this lab). This help us view the study of Law of Conservation of Mass, when either side of equation is equally balanced. The calculation for formula mass helps determine if you need to convert grams to a particular substance to moles, from a product. Moles are numbers that are in front of formulae. E.g., 6NaCl, 6 is the equation for this formula. A mole would help you balance a skeleton equation, and also allows you to calculate how many moles are needed to take part in a chemical reaction.
In the laboratory experiment, we are investigate the following equation and how they react: HCl(aq)+NaHCO3(s) reacts to produce NaCl(aq)+H2O(1)+CO2(G) (Note*this chemical equation is already balanced in either side of the equation) When HCl(aq)+NaHCO3(s)reacts with each other, we would find the final product of how much NaCl(aq) would be produced in the end. Statement: How does the theoretical yield of the compound NaCl(aq) compare with the experimental (actual) yield? Hypothesis: If we mix HCl and NaHCO3 and CO2 fizzes in the meanwhile, then we can cook the solution and have H20 to evaporate and leave NaCl as our final product.
Materials: Refer to Mr.Papagapiou Relationship between Mole and Mass Laboratory, Revised November 2015 1. 5M hydrochloric acid (HCl(aq)) 2. Sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3(s)) -Materials that was changed -Instead of 6M hydrochloric acid (HCl(aq)), we used 5M Laboratory equipment’s: Refer to Mr.Papagapiou Relationship between Mole and Mass Laboratory, Revised November 2015 1. Electrical balance 2. Bunsen burner 3. Evaporating dish 4. Water glass 5. Scoopula 6. Beaker 7. Dropper pipette 8. Ring stand 9. Iron ring 10.Wire gauze 11.Safety googles -Materials not being used
1. Test tube (replaced by beaker) Procedure: 1. Flame-dry a clean evaporating dish by heating it in the part of the Bunsen burner for about 5 minutes.
2. Need to cool down all dishes. 3
3. Find the combined mass of the evaporating dish on the electronic balance, measure an additional 3.50g, of sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3(s)) to the evaporating dish.
4. Record the mass as (b) in the list of data.
5. Set up the ring stand, ring and wire gauze. Place the watch glass on top of the evaporating dish and place the dish on the wire gauze.
6. Obtain approximately 5ml of 5M hydrochloric acid (HCl(aq)) in a dry test tube. a. Using a dropper pipette, slowly add HCl to the NaHCO3in theevaporator dish, a few drops at a time. Add the acid until the reaction stops bubbling. b. Tilt evaporating dish back and forth a couple of time, to make sure that acid has contacted all the NaHCO3 c. Make sure bubbling is stopped, remove the watch glass and place it curved side up on the lab bench
7. Light the Bunsen burner and gently heat the evaporating dish. Use a low flame and move the burner back and forth to avoid being splattered. When almost all liquid is has evaporated, remove the burner and replace the watch glass on the evaporating dish, leaving small opening for vapour to escape. Heat gently again, until no liquid remains.
8. Compute the combined mass of the watch glass, evaporating dish, and contents (NaCl)
9. Record data for mass – Procedure that was changed: 1. Obtain approximately 5ml of 6M hydrochloric acid (HCl(aq)) in a dry test tube. -instead of 6M hydrochloric acid, we used 5M Conclusion: Overall to conclude, the data shows that in this chemical equation HCl(aq)+NaHCO3(s) reacts to produce NaCl(aq)+H2O(1) +C02(G), we are focusing only on NaHCO3 and NaCl(aq). The mole ratio is 1:1 ratio and in this lab we are mainly focusing on how much NaCl(aq) is produced when all the water is evaporated in a solution.
In the data (Q2) shows that we have approximately 0.0416mols of NaCl(aq), and also approximately 0.0416 of NaHCO3. In the end the yield for NaCl(aq) the product, we got 3.077%. This percent is lower because of the incident that acquired during the lab. Which leads to possible errors that can happen during the lab. The percent was lower them hundred percent was because of the spill of the solution that happen while working on the lab. We lost a lot solution which effected the amount of mole for NaCl(aq) and the yield. Another possible error can be when you are cooking the solution and didn’t get to evaporate all the water in the solution.
This is cause wrong reading for weight and less NaCl(aq) producing in the beaker. Last error is when an electrical balance can malfunction during your experiment or when you add in to NaHCO3(s) then you should, causing the weight to be higher and a lot amount of HCl(aq). These are some of the possible errors that can happen in the lab that can affect the data analysis. This application can relate to the real world because we use certain liquids to find what they produce. For example coke, when you boil coke in heat, the liquid would start evaporating eventually.
The end results are the amount of sugar one coke bottle that was put in to this soft drink. Another example of a real life connection is rice. When rice cooks, come of the water is absorbed into the rice and the rest of the water is evaporated. You have to use a certain amount of water for a certain amount of rice to cook properly. Last example is when you cook any soups, you use water and other ingredients. Some of the water evaporates while cooking and it leaves behind a ring around the bowl, which are products that were left behind when the water is at a process of evaporating. These are some of the examples of real life connections.
In the end our hypothesis (If we mix HCl and NaHCO3 and CO2 fizzes in the meanwhile, then we can cook the solution and have H20 to evaporate and leave NaCl as our final product.) is acceptable. From looking at the data we are looking for NaCl of how much moles and yield that were produced. Therefore this lab was successful even though we made a mistake for spilling the solution and that our data illustrated those procedures doing the lab.