Ch 12 Id’s 1. Oliver Hazard Petty- United States commodore who led the fleet that defeated the British on Lake Erie during the War of 1812. HS: Petty’s win made him a hero among Americans and it also gave new life to the Americans in the war of 1812 2. Thomas Macdonough- was a naval officer for the United States during the War of 1812. He led his forces that were able to force the invading British army in Plattsburgh, New York in 1814. HS: Macdonough saved New York from being invaded if New York was defeated then the war might have had a different outcome.
It also had a positive effect on American morale. 3. William Henry Harrsion- at the time of the War of 1812 he was the governor of the Indiana territory. He was a major war hero among Americans because he led the forces that defeated Tecumseh and the Prophet in the battle of Tippecanoe. 4. Francis Scott Key- is famous for being the writer of the poem “The Star Spangled Banner” Key wrote the poem during the attack of Baltimore during the war of 1812. HS: The poem was inspring to Americans and it was late made into a song and is now our national anthem. . Andrew Jackson- (straight from course notes) Andrew Jackson the seventh president of the United States was born on March 15, 1767 in New Lancaster County, South Carolina. He became a general in 1812 and was the leader in the Battle of New Orleans. Two weeks after he had won the battle, the diplomats that returned from Britain came back with a treaty. HS: Even though Jackson’s win technically wasn’t even part of the war it had a huge effect on the moral of Americans. 6. Washington Irving- was a writer in the Americas.
He wrote famous books like “Rip Van Winkle” and “The Legend of Sleep Hollow” HS: He is considered the first American writer in England to be considered a legitimate writer. 7. James Monroe- is the writer of the Monroe Doctrine which was the basis for America foreign policy for nearly the next 100 years. It states how the United Stated should try to isolate itself from Europe and their wars. It also proclaimed that if Europe tried to further colonize the west they would not let them. HS: Basis for American foreign policy for many decades to come. . James Fenimore Cooper- was an America novelist who spent his life in the vast frontier and the INdinans. He wrote many famous books but his best remembered for “The Last of the Mohicans” HS: he was a very successful novelist in America in the early 19th century. 9. John Marshall- was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court during 1801 to 1835 and presided over many of the most influencial cases in Supreme Court history like McCullouch vs Maryland. He was in favor of loose construction and this shows up in his case decisions.
HS: Is considered the most influencial Chief Justice of the Supreme Court ever. 10. John C Calhoun- Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also said to the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class and that it is perfectly acceptable. HS: He was influencial to many in the south in their attempt to preserve slavery. 11.
John Quincy Adams- was a very successful secretary of state during the early 19th century. He was the writer and main negotiator of the Adams- Onis Treaty which granted the US Florida in exchange for the US giving up its claim for Texas. He also aided in the writing of the Monroe Doctrine HS: Adams later became president, but his acts as Secretary of State are arguably more significant. 12. Daniel Webster- was a senator and considered that greatest and most verbally powerful member of congress during his time. HS: due to his verbal skills he was influencial in congress. 3. Henry Clay- was a legendary member of the United States Congress he is known as the Great Compromiser. He is responsible for the Missouri Compromise which decided about the rules on slave expansion in the United States. HS: He possibly prevented a civil war by creating the Missouri Compromise. 14. Nationalism- is the love one has for a country and the pride that they feel as a member of that country. HS: this feeling was very common among americans in the 1820’s and it influenced gov’t decisisons. 15. Peculiar institution- this is what the south called slavery.
HS: the south wanted slavery and needed slavery very badly. 16. Protective tariff- business of selling things in America were struggling because buisnesses from places like Enlgand were able to sell their equally good products for less money. Because of this America to save their economy but a tariff on all imports to try to make the foreign merchants hire their prices. HS: This greatly hurt the South because less trade interaction with foreign countries and this was the first step to the civil war. 17. Sectionalism- This is the idea that many Americans especially in the south held.
It is the sort fo the opposite of nationalism because it means that ones loyalty is to their local area or state over their country. HS: Many people in the south held this and it showed disunity. 18. 2nd Bank of the United States- this bank was started by James Madison at the time of his presidency. It was meant to create more loans for state banks and to be a place to deposit national funds. HS: It was blamed for the Panic of 1819 which created many banks to go down during the time. 19. McCulloch v. Maryland- Basically Maryland was trying to impose a tax on any banks that were not state owned in their state.
This was mainly the Bank of the United States. Marshall ended up ruling against Maryland because it was considered unconstitutional to tax the federal govt. HS: This created the idea that the federal govt couldn’t be taxed and supported implied powers. 20. Tariff of 1816- – small business in America were struggling because buisnesses from places like Enlgand were able to sell their equally good products for less money. Because of this America to save their economy but a tariff on all imports to try to make the foreign merchants hire their prices.
HS: This greatly hurt the South because less trade interaction with foreign countries and this was the first step to the civil war. The money was also used to fund projects like the national road. 21. Cohens v Virginia- this was the first criminal case every reviewed by the Supreme Court because it involved federal laws. HS: This case showed the Supreme Court was able to do criminal cases. 22. American System- (from internet) an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building.
This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves. HS: this helped communication, travel and national unity in America. It also helped them later on in industrializing. 23. Gibbons V Ogden- This case was based on Ogden having a monopoly of ships and gibbons who wanted to navigate the waters. He was turned down and therefore brought the case to eventually the supreme court. HS: Established the power of congress for interstate commerce. 24. Bonus Bill of 1817- 25. Battle of Horseshoe Bend- ought during the War of 1812 in central Alabama.
On March 27, 1814, United States forces and Indian allies under General Andrew Jackson defeated the Red Sticks, a part of the Creek Indian tribe inspired by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh. HS: this powerfully ended the Creek War 26. Fletcher V Peck- this case sas a state matter however it was brought to the Supreme Court. HS: This case established the Supreme court’s power to declare state laws unconstitutional. 27. Virginia Dynasty- This is when 4 presidents in a row were all elected from the state of Virginina. After John Adams and starting with Thomas Jefferson.
Many feared that Virginia was creating a dynasty for their president especially New England HS: This was feared by many and brought bad fealings towards the south especiall from New England. 28. Dartmouth v. Woodward- This case was when the state of New Hampshire tried toturn the private college of Dartmouth which was under a royal charter from Britain into a state college. This case was reviewed by Marshall and the Supreme Court. HS: The case was ruled in favor of Dartmouth and it established that contracts were protected under the Constitution. 29.
Era of Good Feeling- An political era when the Federalist party faded away and there were almost no divisions; James Monroe was President. HS: During this time both Nationalism and Sectionalism developed and it was considered a great time in politics. 30. Treaty of 1818- (course notes)- A negotiated treaty between the Monroe administration and England. This treaty came after the War of 1812 to settle disputes between Britain and U. S. It permitted Americans to share Newfoundland fisheries w/ the Canadians, and fixed the vague northern limits of Louisiana from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains.
It also provided for a 10-year joint occupation of untamed Oregon country. Surprisingly, neither Britain or America had to surrender rights or claims for this to occur. HS: This treaty shaped the way Oregon was taken by the United States later in history. 31. Panic of 1819- A natural post-war depression caused by overproduction and the reduced demand for goods after the war. However, it was generally blamed on the National Bank. Hs: It caued the eventual demise of the bank of the United States. 32. Florida Purchase- this is known as the treaty of Adams-Onis andwas negotiated by John Quincy Adams.
In this treaty Spain gave America the territory of Florida and in exchange America took away its claim for Texas. 33. Tippecanoe- this is where William Henry Harrison achieved his victory over Tecumseh and the Prophet in 1811. Hs: This victory brought about immense nationalism and this also helped propel Harrison into his presidency. 34. Constitution- This refers to the shop the constitution which was nicknamed Old Ironsides because in 1812 it was impossible to be destroyed by British ships because it was made to be a super boat. Hs: Source of American morale 5. Battle of the Thames-William Henry Harrison pushed up the river Thames into Upper Canada and won a victory notable for the death of Tecumseh, who was serving as a brigadier general in the British army. HS: This battle lowered the Indian morale vastly and raised American morale. 36. Land Act of 1820- This act was for the newly discovered land to be purchased 80 acres of land for only $1. 25. HS: This greatly sped up the colonizing of uncolonized land and it aided in making new roads and new lines of communication throughout America. 37.
Monroe Doctrine- was the basis for America foreign policy for nearly the next 100 years. It states how the United Stated should try to isolate itself from Europe and their wars. It also proclaimed that if Europe tried to further colonize the west they would not let them. HS: Basis for American foreign policy for many decades to come. 38. Tallmadge Amendment- this was brought to the senate and stated that no more slaves should be brought into Missouri. IT also stated that when a slave turn 25 he/she would be free to go. This didn’t pas though.
HS: IT shows the debate between the North and the south and the problems they had over slavery. 39. Russo-American Treaty of 1824- (from internet) This treaty between Russia and America set the southern borders of Russian holdings in America at the line of 54 degrees- 40′, the southern tip of Alaska. HS: Gave new land to America and settled disputes over land-. 40. Missouri Compromise- This compromise was proposed by Henry Clay and due to the slave devbate a line was created to decide the extension of slavery into new territories. HS: many speculate that this actually prevented the civil war from occurring earlier. 1. Treaty of Ghent ( course notes) It was an agreement signed by the Americans and the British that agreed to stop fighting which potentially led to the end of the War of 1812. It was signed before the Battle of New Orleans, but Americans did not learn of the treaty until after the victory at New Orleans. Americans assumed the “victory” for the war. The British signed quickly because they were more concerned with European affairs. HS: This ended the war of 1812 42. Hartford Convention- This was held by extreme Federalist and they drew up a bunch of grievances and complaints against the Democratic Republicnas.
HS: It backfired because of the failure of this convention and the considered traitorous complaints it lost them a low of influence. 43. Battle of New Orleans- This as a battle in 1815 in which Andrew Jackson led the Americans to their victory of the British. HS: This was a huge morale booster and even though the war was over beforehand it was still a great victory. 44. Blue Light Federalists- These were federalists that hated the way America was going so much with the Democratic Republicans that they signaled the British of American plans during the war of 1812. HS: These acts made many despise the Federalists and what they had become.