An area in social life, Independent of government where Informed citizens can come together and discuss and Influence political action, a domain that used to be solely for political figures and upper society. What were the major components of the public sphere In colonial North America? The public sphere expanded with the raising of literacy rates and the view that participating in politics and reading was fashionable. Some of the influences were numerous coffee shops and pubs, lots of bookshops, Boston Newsletter, first continuously published newspaper.
Which early American stands out for his contributions? Benjamin Franklin What were his three major contributions to the growth of the public sphere? Editing the Pennsylvania Gazette which was considered the best edited, founding the Junta, a forum for mutual Improvement and for discussion about politics, and the Library Company of Philadelphia which was the flirt establishment of circulating literature. What component of freedom was essential to the establishment and growth of the public sphere? Freedom of expression. Which famous libel trial demonstrated that this freedom was becoming ingrained in he popular imagination? 735 Publisher Zinger brought up on charge of libel against the governor, calling him corrupt, and after he showed evidence that the governor was corrupt he was found not guilty. This showed the public that the truth will always win. Columbian exchange- transatlantic flow of goods W > E – tomatoes, potatoes, cotton, tobacco, corn E > W – sugarcane, rice. Horses, pigs, sheep Black Legend- Based on Lass Cases’ book shows image of Spain as uniquely brutal and exploitative colonizer, gives other countries Justification to colonize, challenge Spain’s old French and Dutch are what kind of empires?
Commercial, looking for trading, gold and the Northwest passage England Is what kind of empire? Colonizing, Individual men looking for land, and through the possession of land, freedom and bring them back to the home country to make it wealthier, not focusing on colonization or trade Northwest Passage- Route to Asia through N America English colonization begins with Jamestown in 1607 by Virginia Company 5 Attributes to English Freedom: 1. King subject to rule of law (Magna Cart) 2. Security of persons and property 3. Habeas corpus- cannot be held indefinitely w/out charge 4.
Right to face your accuser 5. Right to trial by Jury Mercantilism: There is always a winner and a loser in trade, best to be the person with money, exports should always exceed imports Virginia- tobacco in Chesapeake region, swampy Pennsylvania- Religious freedom for Quakers, no slavery Georgia- meant to be a refuge for the English poor, became large slave owning plantation state, rice and indigo Carolinas: Indigo and Rice Rhode Island and New Jersey- religious freedom Massachusetts- formed with original Plymouth colony.