Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disease that occurs when a body is unable to produce insulin, is unable to adequately use the insulin produced, or is unable to produce enough insulin for what the body needs, and therefore results in a body not being able to process sugars properly. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 is where the body does not produce any insulin and so the person is dependent on taking insulin shots to survive. Type 2 is where the body can produce insulin but may not be able to produce enough to meet the needs of the body or the body is not properly using the insulin so the person has high blood sugars.
Living a healthy lifestyle can decrease your chance at getting Type 2 diabetes (Milchovich, S. K. , & Dunn-Long, B. , 2011). Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Mellitus occurs in a body that is not able to process sugars due to the inability to produce insulin or the inability to produce enough insulin to meet the needs of the body. According to the CDC, approximately 29. 1 million people in the United States have diabetes. Obesity is one of the leading factors in Type 2 diabetes. Eating a healthy diet and living an active lifestyle can be beneficial to avoiding diabetes.
What is Diabetes? Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disease where the pancreas is unable to produce insulin, is unable to produce enough insulin to meet the needs of the body, or is able to produce enough insulin but cannot properly profuse it (Williams, L. S. , & Hopper, P. D. , 2015). The Greeks and Romans first gave the name Diabetes Mellitus from taking the word diabetes, which means siphon or frequent urination, and mellitus, which means honey or sugar in the urine, and combined them (Milchovich, S. K. , & Dunn-Long, B. , 2011). Type 1 happens when the pancreas does not produce any insulin.
This type will be dependent on insulin to survive and can be called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Type 2 happens when the body can produce insulin but it is insufficient for the needs of the body, or the body does not properly use the insulin produced. This type does not always require insulin so it used to be called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The third type is gestational diabetes and occurs in 2% to 10% of pregnancies. This type usually disappears after delivery but may be an indication that the mother may develop diabetes mellitus later in life (Williams, L. S. , & Hopper, P. D. , 2015).
Signs and Symptoms Diabetes Mellitus includes some classic signs and symptoms. These include frequent urination (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), and excessive hunger (polyphagia). Other signs include excess glucose in the blood due to the body not being able to process all the extra glucose that is being left from the inability to use the insulin properly. This high sugar level can cause fatigue, blurred vision, abdominal pain, and headaches. It also causes the body to need more water to return the body to homeostasis.
Fatigue and frequent urination are symptoms that may send a person to seek medical care (Williams, L. S. , & Hopper, P. D. , 2015). A patient may seek medical care if they have sores on their feet that become infected due to not healing as this may be a sign of diabetes mellitus (Scobie, I. N. , Campbell, I. W. , & Samaras, K. , 2009). Diagnosis. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus starts with a fasting plasma glucose level. If the result is above 126 mg per dL after 8 hours of fasting, it is considered positive for diabetes mellitus.
Random plasma glucose levels may be drawn. If a random plasma glucose level is above 200 mg per dL and they have symptoms, the doctor will diagnose diabetes mellitus. The glycohemoglobin test, also known as the hemoglobin A1C test, gives an average of the last two to three months of blood glucose levels. A hemoglobin A1C result of over 6. 5% is an indication of diabetes mellitus (Williams, L. S. , & Hopper, P. D. , 2015). Causes. Obesity and Heredity are the two biggest factors that contribute to getting Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Contributing factors for Type 1 include an autoimmune response, heredity, and a virus (Williams, L. S. , & Hopper, P. D. , 2015). With the obese population growing, the number of diabetes cases continues to increase. Other factors that contribute are high blood pressure, ethnicity, or if you have had gestational diabetes (Milchovich, S. K. , & Dunn-Long, B. , 2011). Treatments. A patient that is diagnosed with diabetes mellitus will be taught to monitor their blood glucose levels at home. Usually they will monitor four times a day, before each meal and before bedtime.
A log should be kept and given to their doctor to determine if treatment is effective to maintain a healthy blood glucose level. Insulin is the most common medication used to treat diabetes mellitus. The patient must be taught about the different kinds of insulin, how to mix the insulin if required, and how to self-inject themselves each day. Education on managing diabetes mellitus is key to being successful. Nutrition will be a huge part of the education process. Eating every four to five hours while awake has proven beneficial in controlling blood sugars and keeping it stable (Williams, L. S. , & Hopper, P. D. , 2015).
It is also important to include a moderate amount of protein and a constant carbohydrate with each meal and snack. Losing 10-20 pounds will have a very positive impact on lowering your blood glucose levels. Getting plenty of exercise will help you to lose weight as well as make you healthier in general which can help control the blood glucose levels (Milchovich, S. K. , & Dunn-Long, B. , 2011). According to Williams, L. S. , & Hopper, P. D. , (2015) “the only cure for diabetes mellitus is a pancreas transplant”.
However, in type 2 diabetes mellitus, it has been proven effective to lose weight and control your diet and can sometimes reduce the need for medications (Williams, L. S. , & Hopper, P. D. , 2015). Prognosis. If diabetes mellitus is well managed and controlled, the risk of complications is much lower. But if the diabetes mellitus is not controlled, the body will start having lots of problems. Heart problems and blood vessel disease are more likely to happen. Circulation to the legs is altered and results in wounds that are difficult to heal. The nerves can be damaged leading to neuropathy in the legs, feet, or hands (Milchovich, S. K. , & Dunn-Long, B. , 2011).
Closing. Education about preventing diabetes mellitus should be the top priority if risk factors are present. Eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly are key to prevention. Knowing your family history is also good so you know if you are at a higher risk due to heritage. If you get regular checkups at your doctor, early signs and symptoms can be detected and you can avoid some major problems associated with diabetes mellitus. Always report any signs and symptoms promptly to receive adequate care and treatment.