TOBACCO – History TOBACCO is a plant native to the Americas and historically one of the half-dozen most important crops grown by American farmers. More specifically, tobacco refers to any of various plants of the genus Nicotiana, (especially N. tabacum) native to tropical America and widely cultivated for their leaves, which are dried and processed chiefly for smoking in pipes, cigarettes, and cigars; it is also cut to form chewing tobacco or ground to make snuff or dipping tobacco, as well as other less common preparations.
Tobacco is an agricultural commodity product, similar in economic terms to agricultural foodstuffs: the price is in part determined by crop yields, which vary depending on local weather conditions. The price also varies by specific species grown, the total quantity on the market ready for sale, the area where it was grown, the health of the plants, and other characteristics individual to product quality CHRONOLOGICAL FACTS http://www. tobaccoatlas. org/timeline. html 1492 Christopher Columbus and his crew returned to Europe from the Americas with the first tobacco leaves and seeds ever seen on the continent.
A crew member, Rodrigo de Jerez, was seen smoking and imprisoned by the Inquisition, which believed he was possessed by the devil. Early 1500s Middle East, Tobacco introduced when the Turks took it to Egypt. 1530–1600 China, Tobacco introduced via Japan or the Philippines. 1558 Europe, Tobacco plant brought to Europe. Attempts at cultivation failed. 1560 Africa, Portuguese and Spanish traders introduced tobacco to Africa. 1592–1598 Korea, The Japanese Army introduced tobacco into Korea. 1600s CIRCA 1600 India, Tobacco first introduced. 603 Japan Use of tobacco well-established 1650s South Africa European settlers grew tobacco and used it as a form of currency. 1700s Africa/Americas African slaves forced to work in tobacco fields 1833 UK, Phosphorus friction matches introduced on a commercial scale, making smoking more convenient. 1854 England, Philip Morris began making his own cigarettes. Old Bond Street soon became the center of the retail tobacco trade. 1901–02 England, Imperial Tobacco Company Limited (ITL) and British American Tobacco (BAT) were founded. 903 Brazil, Tobacco company Souza Cruz founded. 1913 USA, Birth of the “modern” cigarette: RJ Reynolds introduced the Camel brand. 1921 Korea, Korea Ginseng Corporation became Korea Tobacco and Ginseng (KTG) and a monopoly was formed. 1924 Philip Morris introduced Marlboro as a women’s cigarette as “mild as May. ” 1939 USA, Tobacco companies found price-fixing. 1950 USA, The link between smoking and lung cancer was confirmed 1950s China, State monopoly takes control of the tobacco business, and foreign tobacco companies left China.
BAT, almost half of whose revenues came from China, was especially hurt. 1965 UK, Cigarette advertising on TV was banned. 1971 USA, Cigarette manufacturers first agreed to put health warnings on advertisements. This agreement was later made law 1972 Marlboro became the bestselling cigarette in the world 1983 Europe, ERC Group plc, an independent market research group, published first European Tobacco Market Report 1993 Following a series of discoveries on the harm of cigarettes, USA Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) declared cigarette smoke a Class A carcinogen 1994
First international “Quit & Win” campaign 1990s Cigars became fashionable again 1997 Scotland, UK Doctors and Tobacco: Tobacco Control Resource Centre (TCRC) formed by the European Forum Medical Associations (EFMA). The TCRC is based at the British Medical Association in Edinburgh, and works in partnership with national medical associations across Europe. 1997 USA Congress passed a bill prohibiting the Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce from promoting the sale or export of tobacco 1999
USA US Justice Department sued the tobacco industry to recover billions of government dollars spent on smoking-related healthcare, accusing cigarette makers of “fraud and deceit. ” 2001 Czech Republic Philip Morris released a report to the government that concluded that smokers save the state money— by dying early. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Public_Finance_Balance_of_Smoking_in_the_Czech_Republic 2000’s Series of international organizations were founded for Tobacco Control 2004 Ireland Workplace smoking ban, including pubs and restaurants, implemented.
Exactly one year after the ban, cigarette sales had declined by 18 percent. 2004 Uganda Environment Minister Kahinda Otafiire announced a ban on smoking in restaurants, educational institutions, and bars. 2004 India Complete ban on tobacco advertising and promotions came into effect. 2006 Bloomberg Global Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use in low- and middle-income countries launched with $125 million donation from Michael Bloomberg, mayor of New York City. http://www. tobacco. org/resources/history/Tobacco_History21. html More detailed post 2000 timeline