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The U.S. Government History

Give an example of one use of hard power and one use of soft power in promoting each goal? The goal of any nation has and the means it uses to pursue them are Influenced by Its traditions, core values, Ideology, and advantages and limitations Imposed by Its geographical locations, size, and wealth relative to other nations. Here, American foreign policy terms Include Physical Security, Physical Security of neighbors and allies, Economic security, and Extending our sphere of influence.

Extending our sphere of influence, it has a meaning that it keeps foreign power UT of the Caribbean and Latin America. In other word, US foreign policy- extend our sphere of influence term try to spread our influence by promoting democracy, capitalism, and western cultural values. Each of these has a certain way to influence its power. For instance, Concrete ways of sharing values include a system of public libraries around the world, maintained by the U. S.

Department of state, to disseminate information on our government, economy, and popular culture and academic exchange between American and foreign artists and scholars each year. Second goal Is to protect our economic security. Even In our dealings with our closest allies, economic self Interest Is almost always a factor of foreign policy. Trade melons and participation In the International organization that govern trade relations crucial to achieving our foreign policy goals, even though most of the public pays scant attention to them. Third term is to protect physical security of neighbors and allies and major democratic allies.

After World War II we have committed to NATO to Join in the defense of Canada and western Europe nevertheless, its purpose is to protecting the physical security of western Europe by deterring Soviet aggression, seems far less elevate now with the end of the soviet union. Also, there are our principle military allies, with whom we share cultural heritage and commitment to democratic government. The nature of security threats demands multilateral cooperation and the united States Is simply no longer In an economic and military to go In alone.

Last term Is primary foreign policy goal, Like that every other nation, Is to protect our hassle security. In an era when terror has become a major tactic of our enemies, physical security must be defended against both external and internal attacks. Since /1 1, 2011 greater emphasis has been placed on how to prevent terrorist attacks by conventional, biological, chemical, or nuclear weapons, both from within and without, and how to stop the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. 2. Discuss the role of congress and the public making foreign policy.

Compare the influence of each of them to the influence of the president. Why does the public have a lesser role in foreign than domestic policy? When the president makes the foreign policy his inner circle people advices him. He gives at least a perfunctory hearing to people who head apartments and agencies involved with making or implementing policy. The president also consults others, including the Joint Chiefs of staff, influential members of congress, and , on trade Issues and foreign debt especially, the secretary of the treasury.

However, In congress the leading of congressional committees on foreign affairs and armed services and of the oversight committees for intelligence agencies appropriates all money for carrying out foreign policy, the president is limited in the scope of the actions he can make without congressional approval or at least acquiescence. Also, congress decides to declare war because for only one person Inch the president is too dangerous to give war power. Therefore, the views of the public on foreign policy are not that different from those of elected policy makers. Hen they vary, public opinion has little direct effect except on high profile issues that could make a difference at the poll. Public opinion also has little short term impact on decisions made in crisis situations or in secrecy for national security reasons. It is complicated to view public opinion because only minority of them know much about even the most publicly discussed issues thus there is growing wariness about impact of foreign policy, especially trade issues, on daily life, it is difficult for the public to be well informed on the technical problems involved in trade and tariff negotiations. . Describe isolationism, containment and d©tenet. How did each policy fit the nature of the times and the power of the United States at that time? Which policy does the war in Vietnam illustrate? Give some reasons why the war failed. Did this lead too change in overall policy? * Isolationism- a policy of involvement with other nations outside the Americas; generally followed by the United States during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Containment- policy formulated by Truman administration to limit the spread of communism by meeting any action taken by the Soviet Union with a countermen; led US decision makers to see most conflicts in terms of US soviet rivalry. * D©tenet- a policy designed to deescalate Cold War rhetoric and promote the notion that relations with the soviet union could be conducted in ways other than confrontation; developed by president Richard M. Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Singer.

Different foreign policy ideas define US policy at different times. United World War l, the dominant idea was isolationism, but with some exceptions in Latin America and through entrance into World War l. After world war II, containment policy embroiled our soft and hard power alike to prevent the spread of communism. As the communist threat declined, American foreign policy makers entered into agreements with Soviet leaders in a policy called d©tenet. Containment policy illustrates Vietnam war, because it was in era of World War II.

And there were some reasons that policy failed in Vietnam which are: * We did not have clear goals and were even not sure who we were fighting * We did not understand policy aspects of the war * We did not understand the nature guerrilla warfare * We were impatient with the war and were unwilling to devote unending resources to winning it. * We did not have public support Differences overall the lessons of Vietnam persist among policy makers today. 4. NH was Ronald Reagan eager to negotiate with Mikhail Geographer? Why was Geographer eager to negotiate with Reagan?

What were the consequences of their negotiations? The leader of Soviet Russia, Mikhail Geographer realized that the Soviet union could not sustain its military efforts and sought agreements with the United States. During the latter part of his administration, Ronald Reagan also realized that the Cold War could no longer be sustained and became a partner in peace efforts. In insure compliance, the United States sent inspectors or monitors to the Soviet Union and the Soviet sent them to western Europe and the United States to observe production facilities and the dismantling and removal of the missiles. . How did George W. Bush’s foreign policy goals and tactics change after 9/11? Were his actions after 9/1 1 an example of multilateral or unilateralism or both? Contrast Bush’s foreign policy views with those of Bill Clinton. George W. Bush did not believe in multilateral, preferring unilateralism, with the United States acting on its own Never possible. However, the terrorist attacks by al-Qaeda on 9/1 1, 2001 changed policy dramatically.

With world public union in sympathy with United States as a dictum of unprovoked attack, Bush enlisted several of our traditional allies, such as retain, Australia, and several NATO allies, to strike against Taliban-controlled government of Afghanistan, the country that had sponsored al-Qaeda. When Bush took his office, he spurned multilateral but he had declared a war on terror, so Initial successes in Afghanistan were not enough. At the time and since, analysts have pointed out the strategic and practical errors of this approach.

Bush’s strategy of pre-emotive war and regime change unleashed a wave of anti-Americanism throughout Europe and parts of Asia as well as the middle east. However, Bill Silicon’s foreign policy themes were shaped more by skepticism of the Vietnam era than by memories of the Allied victory in World War II. He believed that the best foreign policy is to have strong economy. He was so rooted in the pursuit of national economic interests that almost all issues were discussed in terms f their value to US trade relations.

This led some observers to label his foreign policy ‘merchant diplomacy’. Also, he emphasized multilateral, that is, working with other nations to achieve our goals. 6. What are instate actors, and why are they important to the United States? These are groups of individuals, not part of a recognized government, who are using armed force to try to topple their own government or intervene in other nations to pursue their objectives. What implications does being at war most of the time have? Are there ways of mitigating the negative consequences?

Describe the military industrial political complex. In a major war US government has grown to support it. Ere last decades at war, military conflict has changed the nature of American government. Not only has government grown, but a powerful coalition of industries supporting military activities, their congressional allies, and military leaders has emerged. This is so called iron triangle is the military industrial political complex President Dwight Eisenhower spoke of as he left office in 1961.

Moreover, getting control of defense spending is most challenges we face in formulating effective cantonal security policy, both to better target preparedness to most urgent threats and to reduce deficit spending, something that cannot be achieved without containing the pentagon budget as well as domestic spending. How does china’s economic power have political consequences? What are some of the current features of US policy toward China? China is investing mass of diplomatic energy in increasing markets for its goods in other parts of the world and is becoming increasingly less dependent on the United States as a buyer of its products.

The less interdependent our economies become, the more our massive litany might, is far superior to that of china, our continuing failure to get our deficit under control means that we be even more indebted to creditor nations, and the primary one is China. Thus they will have an increasing influence on America’s behavior in the world. How have US presidents sought to mediate conflicts in the Middle East? What are some of the key interests and why does the US have a stake in the Middle east? 1 .

Ensure that the Middle East does not serve as a devil’s playground for mass casualty terrorism and WIND plots against the United States and its allies. That does not presuppose a “freedom agenda” as the key instrumentality to achieve this objective, but rather looks to strengthen the Arab state system and the functional sovereignty of individual states over time, an effort in which a more patient and measured effort to promote reform has a significant role. It does put a near-term premium on avoiding an optic of defeat in Iraq, for an optic of defeat there would encourage terrorists and enlarge the social penumbra of their supporters. 2.

Break the petroleum monopoly on transportation fuels as quickly as possible. . Stand for the security and legitimacy of Israel in new circumstances, which should include offering U. S. Good offices to achieve a Just and sustainable peace with all of Israel’s neighbors. 4. Prevent a hostile power from achieving hegemony over the region, as hard or as easy as that may be. Finally, unlike the economy, foreign policy is unlikely to have critics charging that it is not rightly the responsibility of the federal government. In times of war or palpable threat to national security, the public is more accepting of a concentration on foreign policy.

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