Armed Forces of the Philippines: A Brief History of the Philippine Army
PA BASIC DOCTRINE AFP ORGANIZATION A. BRIEF HISTORY 1. March 22, 1897- Artemio Ricarte was elected CAPT. GENERAL of the Revolutionary Army in the Tejeros Convention in which the First Philippine Republic was born. 2. Phil. Legislature House Bill Nr. 72 (1934) – provided the creation of National Defense. B. LEGAL BASIS IN ORGANIZING THE AFP (PA) 1. ) Constitution- the defense of the state is a prime duty of all citizens as required by law to render a personal military service. 2. ) Commonwealth Act Nr. 1- otherwise known as the National Defense Act was approved in 21 December 1935. 3. ) Executive Order Nr. 1- issued by president QUEZON in January 11, 1936 that effected the organization of Hqs, PA as a component of regular force. 4. ) Commonwealth Act No. 88- approved by Pres. QUEZON on January 16, 1936 that provided for the creation of the State Police Force which nationalized the police force into a separate organization. The Constabulary was relieved of its national police powers and remains as integral part of the Philippine Army. 5. ) Commonwealth Act No. 343- approved on June 23, and implemented by Executive Order No. 15 issued that same day effected the separation of the PC from PA. C.
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DIFFERENT ARMS AND SERVICES DURING THE EARLY ARMY SET-UP InfantryOff Shore PatrolFinance Svc CavalryAdjutant Gen SvcChaplain Svc Field ArtyQM SvcCorps of Professor Coast ArtyQrd & Chem WarfareCadets of PM Service Air Corps & Off Shore Patrol- was elevated to major command in 1947 and major service in 1950. D. SIGNIFICANT DATES 1. July 6, 1951- US President POOSEVELT called into the service of the US Army Forces in the Phil. Two regular and reserved divisions of the PA became Part of US Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) 2. December 24, 1941- Philippines was invaded by Japanese Forces. . April 9, 1942- Fall of Bataan 4. October 28, 1944- Pres OSMENA issued executive Order No. 21 reactivating the PA. MAJ GEN BASILIO VALDEZ assumed his former role as the Chief of Staff. 5. March 29, 1945- PA Hqs was initially located at National University and 12 days later it was transferred to the Legarda Elem School building up to Nov. 23, 1945. November 24, 1945- PA Hqs was transferred to Ang Tibay building at Grace Park, Manila up to Aug. 5, 1946. 6. July 1, 1947- PA Hqs was relocated to Camp Crame before it finally moved to Fort McKinley, Rizal. 7.
Executive Order Nr. 1 dated 7 June 1945- established the Military Police Command to restore peace and order in the liberated areas. 8. August 14, 1945- Japan surrendered after atomic bomb was dropped at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 9. September 2, 1945- Japan formally signed its surrender and WW II in the Pacific was officially ended. E. ARMY ORGANIZATION In line with the “Government Reorganization Plan” contained in Executive Order #94 of Pres ROXAS, dated 4 October 1947, the Army of the Philippines was drastically revamped. 1. General Orders No. 228 dated October 24, 1947.
Army of the Philippines was charged to Armed Forces of the Philippines while its Hqs was renamed as Hqs National Defense Forces. 2. General Orders No. 269 WHDF dated December 31, 1947. PC was activated and reconstituted to a separate organization and was placed with the Department of Interior to discharge police function. 3. In 1950, to effect a vigorous campaign against subversive movements and to spare the Battalion in Korea under is commitment with the United Nation, seven Army Scout Commands and 27 BCT were organized, and five of this BCT’s have rendered their service with PEFTOK from 1950 to 1953. . Executive Orders No. 359 dated 23 December 1950 issued by Pres. QUIRINO provided for the creation of four (4) Major Services in the AFP. These were the PA, PAF, PC ; PN THE AFP TODAY 1. July 1, 1957, pur to Sec. 1, GO Nr. 362, GHQ AFP dated 22 June 1957. PA was separated from GHQ, AFP. However, the reactivation of the HPA in Fort Bonifacio, Rizal was felt since 1945 the year the backbone of the HMB movement was definitely broken. 2. BGEN LEONCIO TAN was designated CG, PA when HPA was organized. (July 1, 1957) It was during the period when Army participated in SEATO exercises.
In late sixties, the Army Corps of Engineers (51EBde) were organized and fielded for engineering construction and development projects. In line with the accepted concept of civilian supremacy over the military, and as provided for our National Defense Act, the President of the Philippines is the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. Under the President is the Secretary of National Defense who exercises supervision and control over the AFP. He supervises the National Defense Program of the country and the maintenance of peace and order.
The Chief of Staff is the highest military officer in the AFP. He has command of all elements of the AFP. He is the immediate adviser to the Secretary of National Defense. The C of S is assisted be General Staff, Administrative and Technical Staff. As of February 1960, pursuant to Executive Order No. 376, the addition of a new division, the Plans Division (J5) was effected ; now the DC of S (J6) Comptroller, DC of S (J7) for Home Defense, and DC of S (J8) for Material and Development. However, Material and Development was changed to DC of S (J9) for material and evelopment and DC of S (J8) for Training effective Jan 1988. G. STATEMENT OF MISSION AND BASIC FUNCTION 1. Armed Forces of the Philippines Mission: a. To uphold the sovereignty, support the Constitution and defend the territory of the Republic of the Philippines against all enemies, foreign or domestics. b. To advance the national aims, interest and policies. c. To effectively plan for the organization, maintenance, development and deployment of its active and reserve forces for national security. d. To perform such other duties as the President may direct. . General Headquarters, AFP Mission: To provide direction and control to the Armed Forces of the Philippines, formulate plans and programs for the guidance of the four (4) Major Services and the other units of the AFP and to provide AFP- Wide Support to include administrative intelligence, training, logistics, technical special services. 3. Statement of Basic Functions a. Command: (1) Chief of Staff, AFP (C of S, AFP) the Chief of Staff, AFP executes the President Command function in relation to military strategy, tactics and operation.
He is the immediate adviser of the Secretary of National Defense and is responsible of the planning, development and execution of the national defense program as prescribed by the Secretary of National Defense. He commands all elements of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. (2) Vice Chief of Staff, AFP (VC of S, AFP) – the Vice Chief of Staff, AFP assists the Chief of Staff and performs his functions during the latter absence or inability. (3) The Deputy Chief of Staff (TOCS) – The Deputy Chief of Staff exercise general supervision over the Joint Administrative Staff and Technical Staff, GHO. 4) Secretary of the Joint Staff (SGS)- The Secretary of the Joints Staff is the Executive Officer of the CofS, VCofS, TDCS. b. Personal Staff: (1) The Inspector General (TIG)- The Inspector General assists the DND and CofS, AFP in the administration of the AFP on matters affecting discipline and economy through inspections, investigations, research and studies, by providing information on conduct and duty performance; and suggesting ways and means of improvement. 2) Public Relation Officer (PRO)- The Public Relation Officer advises the CofS, AFP and Joints Staff on all aspects of command information and public information. (3) AFP Sgt Major- The AFP Sgt Major advises the CofS, AFP on the improvement of morale and welfare of enlisted personnel of the AFP; and assist the formulation of personnel policies that can contribute to the accomplishment of the AFP mission. (4) Aides- performs the duties of securities and aide-de-camp to the CS, AFP and to the President and his cabinet members. 5) C. AGCPA c. Joint Coordination Staff (1) Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel (DCS Per)- the DCS for Personnel assists the C of S, AFP in the attainment of AFP personnel objectives as pertains to command and staff direction, coordination, control and supervision of all personnel activities of the AFP. (2) Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence (DCS. Intel) – the DCS Intel plans, directs, coordinates and supervises activities of the AFP pertaining to military intelligence and counter intelligence. 3) Deputy Chief of Staff for Operation (DCS Opns) – the Operations formulates policies and plans, directs coordinates and supervises all matters pertaining to plans, organization and operations of the AFP. (4) Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics (DCS Log)- the DCS Logistics advises the Chief of Staff, AFP on logistics, coordinates and supervises and evaluates the implementation of approved logistics, plans and procedures. (5) Deputy Chief of Staff for Plans (DCS Plans)- The DCS Plan studies and prepares plans outside of the field on immediate operational planning to meet all possible war contingencies. 6) Deputy Chief of Staff for Comptrollership (DCS Compt)- the DCS Compt directs, coordinates and supervises matters, pertaining to budgeting, accounting, financial reporting, auditing and management of the AFP. (7) Deputy Chief of Staff for Staff Home Defense (DCHSD)- the Deputy Chief of Staff for Home Defense assists and advises the Chief of Staff, AFP reserve forces, development of the citizen armed forces socio0 economic military programs, civic action and other home defense activities. 8) Deputy Chief of Staff for Training (DCS Trng) – the DCS for Trng formulates policies, directs coordinates and supervises all matter pertaining to training of the AFP. (9) Deputy Chief of Staff for Material Development (DCS MAD)- the DCS MAD plans and administer programs for the development of self reliant defense posture, plans and program all foreign military material, training and technical assistance in coordination with the Major Services and AFPWSSUs.