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The Human Mosaic Chapter 2

a cultivation system that features the interplanting of tress with field crops
amenity landscapes
landscapes that are prized for their natural and cultural aesthetic qualities by the tourism and real estate industries and their customers
the forceful appropriation of a territory by a distant state, often involving the displacement of indigenous populations to make way for colonial settlers
consumer nationalism
a situation in which local consumers favor nationally produced goods over imported goods as part of a nationalist political agenda
convergence hypothesis
a hypothesis holding that cultural differences among places are being reduced by improved transportation and communications systems, leading to a homogenization of popular culture
traditional, rural; the opposite of “popular”
folk architecture
structures built by members of a folk society or culture in a traditional manner and style, without the assistance of professional architects or blueprints, using locally available raw materials
folk culture
a small, cohesive, stable, isolated, nearly self-sufficient group that is homogeneous in custom and race; characterized by a strong family or clan structure, order maintained through sanctions based in the religion or family, little division of labor other than that between the sexes, frequent and strong interpersonal relationships, and a material culture consisting mainly of handmade goods
folk geography
the study of the spatial patterns and ecology of traditional groups; a branch of cultural geography
indigenous culture
a cultural group that constitutes the original inhabitants of a territory, distinct from the dominant national culture, which is often derived from colonial occupation
indigenous technical knowledge
highly locales knowledge about environmental conditions and sustainable land-use practices
leisure landscapes
landscapes that are planned and designed primarily for entertainment purposes, such as ski and beach resorts
local consumption cultures
distinct consumption practices and preferences in food, clothing, music, and so forth formed in specific places and historical movements
material culture
all physical, tangible objects made and used by members of a cultural group, such as clothing, buildings, tools and utensils, instruments, furniture, and artwork; the visible aspect of culture
nonmaterial culture
the wide range of tales, songs, lore, beliefs, values, and customs that pass from generation to generation as part of an oral or written tradition
a spatial standardization that diminishes regional variety; may result from the spread of popular culture, which can diminish or destroy the uniqueness of place through cultural standardization on a national or even worldwide scale
popular culture
a dynamic culture based in large, heterogeneous societies permitting considerable individualism, innovation, and change; having a money-based economy, division of labor into professions, secular institutions of control, and weak interpersonal ties; producing and consuming machine-made goods
groups of people with norms, values, and material practices that differentiate them from the dominant culture to which they belong
subsistence economies
economies in which people seek to consume only what they produce and to produce only for local consumption rather than for exchange or export
vernacular culture region
a (culture) region perceived to exist by its inhabitants, based in the collective spatial perception of the population at large, and bearing a generally accepted name or nickname (such as “Dixie”)
dogtrot house
Two main rooms connected by a roofed breezeway
saddlebag house
-Brick chimney running through center of house
-High, steeply sloped roofs
-Two doors on opposite side of the chimney
creole cottage
-A type of vernacular architecture unique to the Gulf Coast
-Began to be used frequently in the 19th century
-Has a porch and a high, gabled roof, which are styles that originated in French colonies
shotgun house
-Long and narrow
-Well-suited for warm climates
-in Alabama and Haiti
Yankee “upright and wing”
-Also called Temple and Wing or Gable Front and Wing
-Residential architectural style found in American vernacular architecture
-Popular from mid to late 19th century, typically has a gable ended “upright” section, typically two stories, with a one story ell or “wing” section
New England “large” house
-Two and a half stories
-Two rooms deep
-Built around a central chimney
Yankee cape cod
-Smaller than normal house
-Built of notched logs
-Two log rooms
-Double fireplace
ontario farmhouse
-Made of brick
-Has a gabled front dormer window
-Usually has two chimneys
-Gothic revival
Quebec farmhouse
-Usually built on top of a cellar
-Building centered around the kitchen, which was considered the most important room
-Gothic to Swiss
pop-culture landscapes
-Constant changes
-Strip malls, shopping malls
-Big box stores, national chains
folk ecology
Migrating folk cultures seek similar lands
-eg. migration of Appalachian folk culture
cultural convergence
Globalization in pop-culture
-Convergence hypothesis- cultures become more alike
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