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Human Mosaic: Chapter 4

A mutually agreed-on system of symbolic communication that has a spoken and usually a written expression
Pidgin Language
A composite language consisting of a small vocabulary borrowed from the linguistic groups involved in commerce
Creole Language
A language derived from a pidgin language that has acquired a fuller vocabulary and become the native language of its speakers
Lingua Franca
An existing, well-established language of communication and commerce used widely where it is not a mother tongue
The ability to speak two languages fluently
Language Family
A group of related languages derived from a common ancestor
A mixture of different languages
Anatolian Hypothesis
A theory of language diffusion holding that the movement of indo-European languages from the area in contemporary Turkey known as Anatolia followed the spread of plant domestication technologies
Kurgan Hypothesis
A theory of language diffusion holding that the spread of Indo-European languages originated with animal domestication in the central Asian steppes and grew more aggressively and swiftly than proponents of the Anatolian hypothesis maintain
The border of usage of an individual word or pronunciation
Words and phrases that are not part of a standard, recognized vocabulary for a given language but that are nonetheless used and understood by some of its speakers
A dialect spoken by a particular ethnic group
Language Hotspots
Those places on Earth that are home to the most unique, misunderstood, or endangered languages
Linguistic Refuge Area
An area protected by isolation or inhospitable environmental conditions in which a language or dialect has survived
A place-name, usually consisting of 2 parts, the generic and the specific
Generic Toponyms
The descriptive part of many place-names, often repeated throughout a cultural area
A distinctive local or regional variant of a language that remains mutually intelligible to speakers of other dialects of that language; a subtype of a language
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