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The Human Mosaic Chapter 1

A grouping of like places or the functional union of places to form a spatial unit
The study of spatial patterns and of differences and similarities from one place to another in environment and culture
Human Geography
The study of the relationships between people and the places and spaces in which they live
A total way of life held in common by a group of people
Physical Environment
All aspects of the natural physical surroundings
Term to connote the objective, quantitative, model based typed of geography that seeks to understand spatial systems and networks through applications of the principles of social science
An imaginary situtation, proposed to simulate laboratory conditions so that geographers can isolate certain causal forces for detailed study
Term to connote the subjective, humanistic, culturally oriented type of geography that seeks to understand the unique character of individual regions and places
The Love of Place
Formal Region
A region inhabited by people who have one or more cultural traits in common
Border Zones
Areas where different regions meet and sometimes overlap
Concept based on the tendency of bother formal and functional culture regions to consist of a core/node, in which defining traits are purest or functions are headquartered, and a periphery that is tributary and displays fewer of the defining traits
Functional Region
An area that functions as a unit politically, socially, or economically
The central point in a functional culture region where functions are coordinated and directed
Vernacular Region
A region perceived to exist by its inhaitants
The relative ability of people, ideas, or things to move freely through space
The movement of people, ideas, or things from one location outwards towards other locations
Independent Invention
A cultural innovation that is developed in two or more locations by individuals or groups working independently of each other
Relocation Diffusion
The spread of an innovation or other element of culture that occurs with the bodily relocation/migration of the individual or group responsible for the innovation
Expansion Diffusion
The spread of innovations within an area in a snowballing process so that the total number of knowers or users becomes greater and the area of the occurrences grows
Hierarchical Diffusion
A type of expansion diffusion in which innovations spread from one important person to another, or from one urban center to another, temporarily bypassing other persons or rural areas
Contagious Diffusion
A type of expansion diffusion in which cultural innovation spreads by person to person contact without regards to social status
Stimulus Diffusion
A type of expansion diffusion in which a specific trait fails to spread, but the underlying idea or concept is accepted
Time-Distance Decay
The decrease in acceptance of a cultural innovation with increasing time and distance from its origins
Absorbing Barriers
A barrier that completely halts diffusion of innovations and blocks the spread of cultural elements
Permeable Barriers
A barrier that permits some aspects of an innovation to diffuse through hit, but weakens and slows the continued spread
A term that implies an ongoing set of movement of people, ideas, or things that have no particular center or periphery
A large scale movement of people between different regions of the world
Transnational Migrants
Groups of people who maintain ties to their homelands after they have migrated
The binding together of all the lands and peoples of the world into an integrated system driven by capitalistic free markets, in which cultural diffusion is rapid, independent states are weakened, and cultural homogenization is encouraged
Human Development Index
Statistics that includes life expectancy, adult literacy, educational participation, and gross domestic product, to create a measure of development
Uneven Development
Inequitable distribution of resources, where some countries have higher HDIs than others
Complex relationship between people and the physical environment
Cultural Ecology
The study of the relationships between the physical environment and culture
Environmental Determinism
Belief that cultures are directly, or indirectly, shaped by the physical environment
Belief that humans, rather than the physical environment, are the primary active force; that any environment offers a number of different possible ways for a culture to develop, and that the choices among these possibilities are guided by cultural heritage
Environmental Perception
Belief that culture depends more on what the people perceive the environment to be than the actual character of the environment
Natural Hazards
An inherent danger present in a given habitat
Organic View of Nature
View that humans are part of nature
Mechanistic View of Nature
View that humans are separated from nature and holds dominion over it
View that women are inherently better environmental preservationists than men
Cultural Landscape
The artificial landscape, the visible human imprint on the Earth
Symbolic Landscapes
Landscape that expresses the values, beliefs, and meanings of a particular culture
Settlement Forms
The spatial arrangement of buildings, roads, towns, and other features that people construct while inhabiting an area
A relatively dense settlement form
A type of settlement form in which people live relatively distant from each other
Land-Division Patterns
The spatial patterns of different land uses
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