Geography assessment Question 1: Natural increase is a driving factor of the population around the whole world, it contributes to every nation in the same way both boosting the economy and creating strain on governments to feed nations. Along with natural increase there are other things such as refugees, immigration and emigration which contribute to a countries population. Birth rate relates to the amount of babies born a year, in Australia per year there is about 300,000 babies born each and every year.
Deaths is exactly what it says, how many people die each and every year about 150,000 eople each and every year. So already without any one entering or leaving the country Australia has a growth of around 150,000 people. Along with natural increase there are other factors within Australia which are growing Australia’s population including life expectancy and an ageing population. With Australia having the seventh oldest population in the world and a life expectancy of 82. 0 years of age it is no wonder that Australia’s population is increasing.
This can be seen as both a problem and a benefit for a country such as Australia. There are many disadvantages and advantages to this, disadvantages can include higher taxes due to health care rising, harder to get into the property market due to less houses being available, but it can also provide more jobs due to older people being in homes and things such as health cover. Along with natural increase migration is a major factor for countries in relation to a growing population.
With 59% of Australia’s growth in population being from overseas migration which works out to about 241,000 people last year. Migration brakes of into two separate groups these include immigration nd emigration. Immigration is moving into Australia and emigration is moving out of the county. Last year about 190,000 people migrated to Australia where as only 21,000 people emigrated out of Australia. Leaving a net migration of around 168,000 people. With this emigration it brings many people over creating jobs and bringing over skilled workers who are capable to do jobs that may have a shortage here in Australia.
Of the 168,000 migrant’s majority of them will enter things such as the house market stimulating the economy, paying taxes etc. all these things are good for Australia’s economy but as always here are down sides to letting migrant’s in these can include language barriers, ethnic tension in areas and limited skilled jobs and education available. The last factor that affects the population of a country the least but in the eyes of many countries is asylum seekers. Last year asylum seekers made up about 1. 2% of total immigration to Australia with about 13,750 refuges entering Australia.
Refugees are a very topical and opinionated topic in a country such as Australia, there cost to the government is staggeringly big up in the millions and they are not really need in countries but efugees often have a great work ethic and generally work for minimum wage. By doing this they are repaying the government filling up jobs Australians generally don’t want to due due to the low pay. Often refugees are helpful to society but are looked down on as many people don’t understand that they are running away from war.
A refugee is described as a person running due to the following factors race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. So to conclude these are the five factors that affect each and very country around the world, either for the good of the country or for worse. Millions of people each year move around the world in the form of emigration and seeking refugee. Along with natural increase boosting the country’s population these are the things that boost a countries population.
Question 2: Mandatory detention is the practice of compulsorily detaining or imprisoning people seeking political asylum. An asylum seeker is defined as an individual seeking international protection whose claim for refugee status has not been determined. Entrants by boat without a visa are entitled to seek asylum. If the government’s initial processing suggests they may have a valid case they are classified as ‘Asylum Seekers’. The people hoping to find asylum in Australia are firstly sent to a processing facility (detention center), either on shore or off shore.
Those whom do get accepted, as mentioned before are put into ‘mandatory detentiOn’ the government then carefully looks at their case to see if the are at risk in their home country of persecution, this processing is long and tedious and can involve nterviews from the Australian national border patrol agents, hours of extensive back round research on the applicant and even court hearings, if found to fit the requirements of an asylum seeker, the applicant is then formally brought into Australia, given housing and government payments until able to support themselves.
The many who don’t end up fitting the criteria of someone seeking asylum in Australia, which is more than those who do get accepted, are deported back to their country of origin, most face serious prosecution once back in their home. Australia has 13 operational detention centers around Australia and not all of them are actually on Australia.
A detention center is an institution for the short term detention of illegal immigrants and refugees awaiting visas. Out of the 13 detention centers Australia has four offshore centers including Christmas island and Nauru. Along with offshore detention centers there are also onshore detention centers. The policy of ‘turning back the boats’ was introduced to Australia in September 3 ,2001 under the Howard government.
Under this policy Under this approach the Australian Naval force was oordinated to catch and board ‘Suspected Illicit Section Vessels’ (SIEVs) – that is, water crafts that were associated with conveying individuals looking to come to Australia without a visa – when they entered Australia’s bordering zone (24 nautical miles from the Australian coast) The Naval force was coordinated to give back these boats to the edge of Indonesian waters, either by working the watercraft under its own motor power or appending the vessel to an Australian vessel and towing it.
The point of Operation Relax was to deflect ndividuals from landing in Australia by vessel by denying them access to Australia. For anyone to become a citizen of Australia there are five steps to do so these include eligibility, documents, apply, appointment and ceremony once the government has done background searches and made sure that these people are safe to entre Australian they then must pay a sum of 285 Australian dollars. This is a slow process and generally takes years for someone to gain citizenship into Australia. The Australian government has two border protection policies in which people must follow.
The first one is the deterrents to unlawful migrants-those who arive in Australia without a visa or whose visa expires and the second one is the deportation of migrants unless they are excepted as migrants. The migration program works under three sub- tiers This process of detaining refugees is both good and bad for the Australian population. it is good for the population of Australia as it keeps out people who we have no idea who they are and where they are from. But this process cost the government and the people of Australia lots of money to keep them in detention, feed them and house them.