Home » Jordan’s Fundamentals of the Human Mosaic – Ch. 1b

Jordan’s Fundamentals of the Human Mosaic – Ch. 1b

Cultural Ecology
Broadly defined, the study of the relationships between the physical environment and culture; narrowly (and more commonly) defined, the study of culture as an adaptive system that facilitates human adaptation to nature and the environmental change.
(Oikos = Home)
A territorially bounded system consisting of interaction between organic and inorganic components.
Cultural Adaptation
The adaptation of humans and cultures to the challenges posed by the physical environment.
Adaptive Strategy
The unique way in which each culture uses its particular physical environment; those aspects of culture that serve to provide the necessities of life – food, clothing, shelter, and defense.
Environmental Determinism
The belief that cultures are directly or indirectly shaped by the physical environment.
IE. Old Mexico City.
A school of thought based in the belief that humans, rather than the physical environment, are the primary active force; that any environment offers a number of possible ways for a culture to develop; and that the choices among these possibilities are guided by cultural heritage.
Environmental Perception
The belief that culture depends more on what people perceive the environment to be than on the actual character if the environment; perception, in turn, is colored by the teachings of culture.
Natural Hazard
Inherent danger present in a given habitat, such as flooding, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, or earthquakes; often perceived differently by different peoples.
Organic View of Nature
The view that humans are part of, not separate from, nature and that the habitat possesses a soul and is filled with nature-spirits.
Mechanistic View of Nature
The view that humans are separate from nature and hold dominion over it and that the habitat is an integrated mechanism governed by external forces that the human mind can understand and manipulate.
Cultural Interaction
The relationship of various elements within a culture.
A term used to connote the objective, quantitative, theoretical, model-based, economics-oriented type of geography that seeks to understand spatial systems and networks through application of the principles of social science.
An abstraction, an imaginary situation, proposed by geographers to simulate laboratory conditions so that they may isolate certain causal forces for detailed study.
A term used to connote the subjective, humanistic, culturally oriented type of geography that seeks to understand the unique character of individual regions and places, rejecting the principles of science as flawed and unknowingly biased.
Love of place; used to describe people who exhibit a strong sense of place.
Cultural Landscape
The artificial landscape; the visible human imprint on the land.
Symbolic Landscape
Landscape that express the values, beliefs, and meaning of a particular culture.
Settlement Form
The spatial arrangement of buildings, roads, towns, and other features that people construct while inhabiting an area.
A settlement form characterized by density.
A settlement form in which people live relatively distant from one another.
Architectural Style
The exterior and interior design and layout of the cultural and physical landscape.
Cultural Systems
Pattern > Process (why) > Culture.
Almost everything has a point of origin
IE. Hoolahoop
Relocation vs Expansion
Taking or moving vs Idea that things spread over time.
In-Situ vs Independent
Once (normal) vs Multiple (rarely)
Range Expansion
IFA from 1918-1998
IE. Fire ants from South America.
Contagious Expansion Diffusion
Malaria, Pneumonia
Visible material expression of humans. (Everything you see when you walk outside)
Reverse Hierarchical Diffusion
Slow take over.
IE. WalMart
Meso American Trilogy
Corn, Beans, Squash. They are symbiotic
Ordinary vernacular landscape – unintentionally reflects.
Converging Cultures
Two areas come to be more and more alike.
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