indopak history and relation
indopak history and relation BY 122 PAK INDIA relations intro historical background current situation indo pak relations always remain hostile. from day one india is against pak existance. there were three major wars 1964,1971 , 1999. the continuity of hostile relation can be attributed to kashmir problem which is still unresolved. ln 1999 Nawaz sharif started dailouge with india but due to kargil war whole process was ruined. again in 2004 efforts were made to sort out problems and to devise a mechanism to resolve the problems a composite dailouge was started. hich include peace security (CBM) saichin sir creek ooler barrage terrorism drug trafficking but again due to mumbai attacks the process halted until 2011 . this time emphasis was laid on trade. ln 2013 the process was against perturbed by skirmishes on LOC until Nawaz Singh meeting in newyork where it was decided to convey meetings of DGMOs to resolve the hostile sitution and again move towards better ties. HISTORY : Here is a look at some highs and lows in relations between India and Pakistan. 1947 ??” The British Empire in the subcontinent is divided into two countries: India and Pakistan.
The unexpected Partition and lack of proper arrangements for one of the reatest migrations of modern history led to skirmishes and bloodshed on both sides of the divide. 1947/48 ??” India and Pakistan go to war over Kashmir. The war ends with a I-IN-ordered ceasefire and resolution seeking a plebiscite for the people of Jammu and Kashmir to decide whether to become part of India or Pakistan. 1965 ??” India and Pakistan fight their second war over Kashmir. Fighting ends after the United Nations calls for a ceasefire. 966??”Tashkand accord signed by India’s prime minister Lal Bahadur Shastri (who died the next day) and Pakistan’s president Ayub Khan, ending the 17-day war between Pakistan and India the parties agreed to withdraw all armed forces to positions held before Aug. 5, 1965; to restore diplomatic relations; and to discuss economic, refugee, and other questions. The agreement was criticized in India because it did not contain a no-war pact or any renunciation of guerrilla aggression in Kashmir. 1971 ??” A rebellion in East Pakistan and alleged interference from the Indian side lead the two countries to war for a third time.
East Pakistan becomes independent Bangladesh. 1972 ??” Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfkar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi sign agreement in Indian town of Simla over principles meant to govern relations. Both countries decided to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations (2)Kashmir dispute is a bilateral issue and must be settled through bilateral negotiations (3)all always respect each others national unity, territorial integrity, political independence and 1989 ??” Separatist revolt starts in Indian-administered Kashmir.
India accuses Pakistan of arming and sending militants into the region, which Pakistan denies. 1998 ??” India carries out nuclear tests. Pakistan responds with its own tests. February 1999 ??” Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee holds summit with Pakistani counterpart Nawaz Sharif in Lahore. known as BUS DIPLOMACY 1999 ??” India and Pakistan wage brief conflict in the mountains above Kargil on the Line of Control, the ceasefire line dividing Jammu and Kashmir. July 2001 ??” Summit between Pakistani leader General Pervez Musharraf and Vajpayee in Agra in India ends in failure.
December 2001 ??” Militants attack Indian parliament. India blames Pakistan-based militants Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) and Jaish-e-Mohammad of launching attack. Tensions rise as one million troops are mobilised on either side of the border; war only averted months later in June 2002. 2003 ??” Pakistan, India agree ceasefire on the Line of Control. 2004 ??” The two countries launch a formal peace process. ( COMPOSITE DAILOUGE) November 2008 ??” Ten gunmen launch three days of multiple attacks in Mumbai, killing 166. India again blames Pakistan-based militants and snaps talks with Pakistan.
June 2009 ??” Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari meet on the sidelines of an international gathering in Russia. Singh tells Zardari he wants him to ensure militants cannot operate from Pakistan. March Singh invites Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani to watch a historic 2011 ??” World Cup cricket match between the two sides and discuss reviving peace process. India beat Pakistan in the match. CRlCKET DIPLOMACY May 2011 ??” Indian and Pakistani troops exchange cross-border fire after an Indian soldier is killed by Pakistani troops in Kashmir.
After talks, India and Pakistan break no ice on how to demilitarise the no-man’s land above the Siachen glacier. November 2011 ??” Pakistan ecides to grant India Most Favoured Nation trade status. Singh and Gilani promise a new chapter in their history after discussions in the Maldives. 2011 ??” Pakistan takes further steps toward normal trade and travel ties with India, agreeing to open most commerce by February 2012 and ease visa rules. January 2013 ??” India accuses a group of Pakistani soldiers of “barbaric and inhuman” behaviour after two Indian soldiers are killed in a firefight in Kashmir and their bodies mutilated.
Pakistan denies involvement. Peace talks stall and Indian Prime Minister Singh says there can be no “business as usual”. CURRENT RELATIONS TRADE RELATIONS in 1947 pakistan 70% trade was with india. in 1952 oak export to india was $113 million where as india exported $. 03million. balance of trade was in pakistan favour till 1965. from 1965 to 1975 there was no trade. After reopening of trade b/w pak india except first threee year again BOT was in pakistan favour in 1993 india changed its policy from socialist to capitalist mode and BOT was in favour of india in 1996 the ratio was 1:2 after india granted MFN status to Pakistan.
In 2011 it rose to 1 granting MFN . The previous government of the Pakistan Peoples Party ad announced in early 2012 to grant MFN status to India by the end of that year. But it didn’t follow through on its decision because of impending elections and pressure from certain industrial and farm lobbies. India’s failure to remove non-tariff barriers (NTBs) to ease the flow of Pakistani goods into its territory was also a major reason for Islamabad’s reluctance to grant MFN status for its next door neighbour. The Agreement (Safta) with zero tariff rates in 2016.
The negative list was also to be phased out by the end of last year, but was delayed because of India’s refusal to emove NTBs to ease the concerns of Pakistani manufacturers of automobile and auto parts, pharmaceuticals, etc. The two-way trade volume has increased to about $2 billion in 2011-12, from $835 million in 2004-05. The size of trade held through third countries is estimated to be many times greater than that done through official channels. Some estimates suggest that bilateral trade could reach $10 billion in a few years, if business relations normalise between the two nations.
KASHMIR covered in detaial WATER DISPUTE: covered detailed SIR CREEK Sir Creek is a 96 km marshy strip in the Rann of Kutch area lying between he southern tips of Pakistan’s Sindh province and Indian state of Gujarat, opening in the Arabian Sea. The dispute is related to the Rann of Kutch. During independence, Pakistan inherited the control of the whole of northern Rann of Kutch, but India occupied a part of it in 1956 . The 1914 resolution that awarded the whole of Sir Creek to Sindh, which in 1947 Joined Pakistan while Gujarat opted for India, should have been respected.
The matter would have been amicably resolved, but two developments changed the Indian stance: firstly, the prospect of oil and gas being ound in the Sir Creek area and secondly, the advent of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of Seas (UNCLOS) to which both Pakistan and India became signatories. The consequent Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) granted Pakistan and India rights under the convention over the sea resources up to 200 nautical miles in the water column and up to 300 nautical miles in the land beneath the column.
Of all bilateral disputes between Pakistan and India, Sir Creek has the simplest solution and can be resolved as a confidence building measure (CBM), paving the way to settle the more complex ones. Political will is required. n 2011 and 2012 meetings were held in Islamabad and delhi and substantial development was seen but due to unfavoured ties it didnot proceded futher SAICHEN GLACIER. The Siachen Glacier The roots of the conflict over Siachen (the place of roses) lie in the non-demarcations on the western side on the map beyond NJ9842.
The 1949 Karachi agreement and the 1972 Simla agreement presumed that it was not feasible for human habitation to survive north of NJ9842. Piror to 1984 neither India nor Pakistan had any permanent presence in the area. The conflict began in 1984 with India’s successful Operation Meghdoot during which it wrested control of the Siachen Glacier (unoccupied and not demarcated area). in 2012 GYARI sector incident it is clear that this dispute is futile and useless to stay there. prisoners : 2007 INDO PAK Judicial committe composed of retired eight Judges from both sides was formed to know numbers of prisoner on both sides . hey invistegated the condition of Jails and prisooners to obtain and facilitate release of prisoner. ln recent past prisoners were swapped from both sides. Visa regime in recent past new visa regime was signed by both countries hich include new visa regime, more concessions have been given to the businessmen from both the countries with giving them multiple entry one year visa with the exemption from the Police Report and with increasing the number of cities Group Tourist Visa has been introduced under which a group of 10 to 50 persons will registered tour operators from both the countries.
Pilgrim Visa, under the new visa regime, pilgrim visas will be issued to pilgrims intending to visit religious shrines as per the 1974 protocol on visits to religious shrines, or any future revision to the protocol. errorism India claim that their is constant infiltration of militants trained by Pakistani intelligence into kashmir and are involved in mutiny. Mumbai Attacks. nterferance of indian army army,and support to Baloch separatist. there is concerns on both sides HOW TO NORMALISE SITUATION hot lines to remove misunderstanding people to people communication (culture exchange progs,visa relaxation,bus and rail service) trade relation political will, sincerity, ( put hardliners on both siades) constant dailouge and political solution for throny issues like kashmir and terrorisms.