History of Technology in Higher Education
The first technological tools use in the classroom was the Magic Lantern in 1870. The magic lantern projected images that were printed on glass plates. The first college to use the magic lantern Leipzig, Germany Is became renowned as a center of magic lantern technology, Including Its use In science education (Smith, 2011 011 lamps and candles served as light sources for the magic lantern. Leipzig had a special amphitheater called the Spectator. It seated up to 400 students and had several lanterns to display images from. The first professors to use magic lanterns in
America were Hugo Mustering at Harvard and E. S. Twitchier at Cornell (Smith, 2011). The magic lantern and the iconography were the two most essential and cost- effective Instruments. The lantern, was estimated, would be used 60 times in an academic year of 35 weeks, at 10 to 30 minutes per usage before 60 to 130 students (smith, 2011). Film strip projector In 1925 filmstrip projector entered classrooms. This is the cousin of the motion picture projector. The filmstrip projector was used to show educational films in classrooms before videocassette tapes, DVD’s and Amps.
Teachers could pause filmstrip projectors for class discussions by turning a knob. Thomas Edison predicted that with the advent of projected Images” books will soon be obsolete In schools; scholars will soon be instructed through the eye” (Vision of Learning: A History of Classroom Projectors 2013). A filmstrip is a spooled roll of 35 mm positive film with approximately thirty to fifty images arranged in sequential order. Like 16 mm film, a filmstrip was inserted vertically down in front of the projector aperture, rather than horizontally as in a slide projector.
Therefore, the frame size Is smaller than normal single mm frame, including its guard band, so that a 25 exposure mm film can contain fifty filmstrip images. Overhead Projector The overhead projector was introduced in 1930. The first models were originally used by the police for criminal profiles and in the United States Military for training and lectures. The body of the overhead projector is a large box containing a bright lamp and fan which functions to cool the device. On the top of the box is a clear lens platform that light passes through in order to reach the lenses above the box.
Hovering over the fan and box is a long neck with one or two mirror lenses. These lenses catch the light coming from the bottom of the device and project it toward a board or blank canvas resembling a flat map. Many recent models provide a doughnut size plastic wheel for adjusting the lenses of the projector for the preference of the user. The overhead projector was a huge success in education. Notes and lectures could be prepared before the lesson. Television During the late ass’s television started to be used in higher education classrooms.
Studies indicate that in 1979, about one half million students were enrolled in more than 6,000 courses offered over television (Dir, 1981). By 1981, 70% of all institutions of higher education used television in the classrooms (Dir, 1981). Computers and Internet Computers are an everyday thing for college students in the United States, there is a requirement to be able to use them. The computer is our present and it may be the rest of our future. Most schools are equipped with a computer lab for students to use.
From Sesame Street to the Rocky Mountain Learning Systems, there is software or students of all ages. One of those that changed the way classes are taught was in introduction of Distance Learning Education. Distance learning gives a student the chance to take a class that is not given at his or her own school. This technology is given though computers over the internet. Teaching in this way is unique in the fact that the teacher and student do not have face to face interaction. To some this may seems as a problem, yet there are many features of distance learning that over comes this.
Chat options and group discussions allows the student of distance earning to about an assigned topic with other students taking the same class all over the United States. Another important part of distance learning, it makes the student use his or her own time management skills to keep on track. There is not a teacher constantly breathing down your throat to get things done. Grading for the teacher is more simplistic because there is not a class participation grade or fluctuations due to how hard a student tried. The teacher sees none of that, Just the work submitted to the computer.