history of nursing

HISTORY OF NURSING (PHILIPPINE SETTING) EARLY CARE OF THE SICK HERBICHEROS – herb men who practice witchcraft and are considered healers MANGKUKULAM – who practices witchcraft to inflict pain or illness to a person, Difficult child birth and some diseases said to be made by NONO EARLY HOSPITALS: Hospital Real de Manila – 1577 1st hospital established Gov. Francisco de Sande To give service to the kings Spaniard soldiers San Lazaro Hospital – 1578 Fray Juan ClementeNamed after the Knights of St. Lazarus Hospital for the lepers Hospital de Indios – 1586 Franciscan Orders

Hospital for the poor Filipino people Hospital de Aguas Santas – 1590 Fray Juan Bautista Named after its location (near spring) because people believed that spring has a healing power. San Juan de Dios Hospital – 1596 For poor people Located at Roxas Boulevard PERSONAGES: Dona Hilaria de Aguinaldo 1st wife of Emilio Aguinaldo Established Philippine Red Cross February 17, 1899 Dona Maria Agoncillo de Aguinaldo 2nd wife of Emilio Aguinaldo 1st president of Philippine Red Cross (Batangas Chapter) Josephine Bracken Helped Rizal in treating sick people Melchora Aquino Took care of the wounded Katipuneros

Anastacia Giron Tupaz Founder of Filipino Nurses Association established on October 15, 1922 1st Filipino chief nurse of PGH 1st Filipino Superintendent of Nurses in the Philippines Francisco Delgado 1st president 0T Hllplno Nurses Assoclatlon Cesaria Tan 1st Filipino to receive Masteral Degree in Nursing abroad Socorro Sirilan Pioneer in Social Service at San Lazaro Hospital Also the chief nurse Rosa Militar Pioneer in nursing education Socorro Diaz 1st editor of PNA magazine called, “The Message” Conchita Ruiz Full time editor of the PNA newly named magazine, “The Filipino Nurse

EARLY NURSING SCHOOLS Iloilo Mission Hospital and School of Nursing Established in 1906 under the supervision of Rose Nicolet (American) Nursing course – 3yrs. 1st TRAINED NURSES: Nicasia Cada Felipa Dela Pena Dorotea Caldito April 1944 – 1st Nursing Board Exam at Iloilo Mission Hospital PGH School of Nursing -1907 St. Paul School of Nursing- 1907 St. Luke’s School of Nursing – 1907 UST – 1946 Fatima – 1947 Fields of Nursing Nursing in Primary Care Setting 1. Public health nursing 2. Occupational nursing 3. Clinic nursing 4. School nursing 5. Private duty nursing 6. Military nursing .

Ambulatory care nursing 8. Nursing in correctional facilities TYPES OF CARE: Full Care ?¤ for completely dependent patient Partial Care ?¤ for partially dependent patient Supportive-Educative care ?¤ to assist clients in attaining their highest possible level of health and wellness; for learnings Communicator Integral to all nursing roles Nurses communicate with the client, support persons, other health professionals, and people in the community Nurses identify client problems and then communicate tnese vernally or In wrltlng to otner memoers 0T tne nealt n team Teacher

Nurses’ help clients learn about their health and the health care procedure they need to perform to restore or maintain their health. Nurses assesses the client’s learning needs and readiness to learn, sets specific learning goals in conjunction with the client, enacts teaching strategies, and measures learning. A nurse also teaches unlicensed assistive personnel to whom they delegate care, and they share their expertise with other nurses and health professionals.

Client Advocate Acts to protect the client Nurse may represent the client’s needs and wishes to other health professionals, uch as relaying the client’s wishes for information to the physician. Nurses assist clients in exercising their rights and help them speak up for themselves Counselor Helping a client recognize and cope with stressful psychologic or social problems, to develop improved interpersonal relationships, and to promote personal growth.

Counsel primarily healthy individuals with normal adjustment difficulties and focuses on helping the person develop new attitudes, feelings, behaviors by encouraging the client to look at alternative behaviors, recognizing the choices, and develop sense of ontrol. Change Agent Assisting others to make modifications in their own behavior. Nurses also often act to make changes in a system if it is not helping client return to health. Leader Influences others to work together to accomplish a specific goal.

Can be employed at different levels: individual client, family, groups of clients, colleagues, or the community Case Manager Work with the multidisciplinary health care team to measure the effectiveness of the case management plan and to monitor outcomes. Works with primary or staff nurses to oversee the care of a specific caseload. Primary nurse or provides some level of direct care to the client and family Helps ensure that care is oriented to the client, while controlling costs.

Research Consumer Often use research to improve client care Have some awareness of the process and language of research Be sensitive to issues related to protecting the rights of human subjects Participate in the identification of significant researchable problems Be a discriminating consumer of research findings Role Model Has good physical appearance Practices proper hygiene Practices healthy lifestyle Administrator Assumes middle management position

Connects the patient to other services of the hospital Expanded Career Roles Nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, nurse midwife, nurse educator, nurse researcher, and nurse anesthetist All of which allow greater independence and autonomy. CONCEPT OF PROFESSION (Marle Janooa) An organization of an occupational group based on the application of special knowledge which establishes its own rules and standards for the protection of the public and the professionals.

A profession implies that the quality of work done by its members is of greater importance in its own eyes and the society than the economic ewards they earn. Serves all of society and not the specific interests of a group CHARACTERISTICS AND ATTRIBUTES OF A PROFESSIONAL PERSON Is concerned with quality. -ksa Is self-directed, responsible and accountable for his actions. Is able to make independent and sound Judgment including high moral Judgment.

Is dedicated to the improvement of human life Is committed to the spirit of inquiry. NURSING AS A PROFESSION Primary Characteristics: Education Theory Service Autonomy Code of Ethics Caring Professional Nursing art and science, dominated by an ideal of service in which certain principles are pplied in skillful care of the well and ill, and through relationship with the client, significant others and other members of the health team.

Professional Nurse A person who has completed a basic nursing education program and is licensed in his country or state to practice professional nursing. QUALITIES AND ABILITIES OF A PROFESSIONAL NURSE Has faith in the fundamental values that underlie the democratic way of life: Respect for human dignity Self sacrifice for the common good. Strong sense of responsibility for sharing in the solution of the problems of the society.

Has a sense of responsibility for understanding those with whom he works or associates with through the use of skills: Has the basic knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to address present day social problems, realistic and well organized thoughts through the use of critical thinking Has skills in using written and spoken language, both to develop own thoughts and to communicate them to others. Appreciates and understands importance of good health Has emotional balance.

Accepts and tries to understand people of all sorts, regardless of race, religion and color. Hve Tola nurslng Tunctlons Promoting Health and Wellness Preventing Illness Pain/suffering alleviation Restoring Health Creation of a spiritual environment PROMOTING HEALTH AND WELLNESS Wellness – state of well-being. Engaging in attitudes and behavior that enhance the quality of life and maximize personal potential For both healthy and ill.

Involve individual and community activities to enhance healthy lifestyle, such as improving nutrition and physical fitness, preventing drug and alcohol misuse, restricting smoking, and preventing accidents and injury in the home and workplace. PREVENTING ILLNESS The goal is to maintain optimal health by preventing diseases Nursing activities ncludes immunizations, prenatal and infant care, and prevention of sexually transmitted disease.

Pain/suffering Alleviation The goal is to provide relief from pain to promote comfortable healing process RESTORING HEALTH Focuses on the ill client Extends from early detection of disease to helping the client during the recovery period NURSING ACTIVITIES: Providing direct care to the ill person: administering medications, baths, and specific procedures and treatments Providing diagnostic and assessment procedures: measuring BP and examining feces for occult blood Consulting with other health care rofessionals about client’s problems Teaching clients about recovery activities: exercise that will accelerate recovery after a stroke Rehabilitating clients to their optimal functional level following physical or mental illness, injury, or chemical addiction Provision of spiritual care Involves comforting and caring for people of all ages who are dying Includes helping clients live as comfortable as possible until death and helping support persons cope with death. Work in homes, hospitals, and extended care facilities Hospices are specifically designed for this purpose.

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