Charles Darwin, a famous naturalist and geologist, who developed the theory of evolution and natural selection. Darwin concluded his work with observations of birds, but didn’t have strong evidence to prove his theory. As of a couple years ago, a group of scientist from the University of Utah did an experiment on DNA from pigeons. From the experiment, the scientists were able to conclude that Darwin’s theory was correct (Osborne). Genetic research is well known as the practice of analyzing DNA strains as well as modifying DNA strains.
DNA is like a thousand page book about yourself. Genetic research has opened up doors to many new experiments and questions. Genetic research has been a huge controversy throughout the whole world. Genetic research is viewed as either as destroying or improving the lives of people. Genetic research has helped create solutions for many diseases, solve investigations easier, as well as, being able to find family member. So without a doubt genetic research has improved our lives. Scientist spends several hours analyzing DNA strains, but every hour spent is worth it.
Before genetic research, genetic based diseases were unsolvable and completely unknown to doctors. Many of the genetic based diseases were seen as made up by the patients because of symptoms being told. According to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases mentions a disease that had “difficult -to- treat symptoms” with high levels of tryptase. Genetic research was able to pinpoint the disease was genetic and that there is a possible solution. What was creating this syndrome was the multiple copies of one single gene within the DNA, thus causing the high levels of tryptase.
Without the resource of analyzing DNA, the syndrome would have never been discovered, and the many families involved would still be suffering from this disease. Not every disease is curable or able to treat the issue. Color blindness is a major disease that is not curable in any way. People who suffer with color blindness don’t just see black and white. People who are color blind are defiant in congenital color, meaning not able to see certain colors. People who are color blinded are mainly men and women are carriers of the disease.
The reason for occurrence is because there is a mutation in the X chromosome, which is known as one of the gender chromosomes (Color Vision Deficiency). Recently, glasses were made for color blind people, so they are to see the colors that everyone else does. From genetic research, scientists were able to pinpoint the mutation like the tryptase syndrome. Analyzing DNA is not just for searching for disease, but it is done to identify people. Investigations in criminal actives are becoming easier to solve with genetic research, depending if DNA is left behind.
DNA is the code to who someone is, so if DNA is left behind at a crime scene an individual will be able to discover who it is. The United States Department of Justice mentions the importance of DNA analysis for criminal cases, “DNA can be used to identify criminals with incredible accuracy when biological evidence exists. By the same token, DNA can be used to clear suspects and exonerate persons mistakenly accused or convicted of crimes. In all, DNA technology is increasingly vital to ensuring accuracy and fairness in the criminal justice system.
Genetic analysis does not identify the criminal, but the process makes sure the accused is correct. How the process works to find the accused through DNA is by comparing the DNA found at the scene with the suspects. The process is also done through the system to compare past criminals or cases with the DNA at the scene. If the there is no matches found through this process, the DNA can tell the gender, race, age, and many other details of the appearance of the accused. In 2001, an unsolved case known as the “Green River Killings”, finally received DNA evidence towards the crime.
In 1999, New York uncovered a man that was linked to 22 sexual assaults and robberies. In 2002, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Fort Collins, Colorado, linked the same individual to the same crimes in these areas through DNA evidence (Department of Justice). Besides being an importance to criminal cases and finding solutions to diseases, genetic research allows an individual to get information about themselves. The information someone can receive ranges from discovering ancestor to knowing hereditary genes. The information someone can obtain as well is information about blood relatives.
In the 1960s, adoption records were commonly sealed. Adoption records that are sealed can never be opened, so the person who was adopted can never know about their birth parents. My great grandfather was adopted by a family and his records were sealed. The only ways an individual could see the records was once the birth parents and child has pasted. My grandfather fought to see his records but always lost the battle. My grandfather died without knowing who his birth parents were. After his death, my family was able to receive the adoptive records and discover who his birth parents were.
My family is not the only family who has suffered through this conflict. Since genetic research, families have found a loop hole to find blood relatives. Using genetic research to find blood relatives is a slow process, but many are getting answers. An article in the New York Times, mentions how some individuals are using genetic research to find blood relatives,” Most adoptees are hungry for information that will lead to their birth parents, but some are also expanding their conception of family as they embrace a far-flung constellation of second, third and fourth cousins”(Swarns).
Adopted children are being able to find their birth parents by search for their genetic match with other family members of the birth parents. Genetic research had allowed families to reunite instead of never knowing who your blood relatives are. The negative views associated with genetic research are genetic modifications in DNA. A specific modification in question is whether or not cloning is moral. What cloning is taking DNA fragments of an organism being cloned and creating a genetic makeup of the original organism, thus creating the clone.
Cloning has become possible with genetic research and is seen unmoral to some individuals (NHGRI). In July 2001, Congress passed a bill that bans any cloning or stem cell reproductive purposes in the United States (NHGRI). The bill makes cloning not possible in the United States, so people shouldn’t be worried of this aspect of genetic research. Starting a family for some individuals is difficult for them. Genetic research has opened the doors to another option to starting a family.
What this option does is taking the mitochondrial DNA and changing the structure to the desired traits, for example, creating a child with blue eyes and brown hair. Mitochondrial DNA is what is being pasted down from the mother to the child. An article wrote by Winston he states a problem with altering mitochondrial DNA, “We know fiddling with mitochondrial DNA may make a massive difference to what happens to nuclear DNA. … Abnormal children have been born as result of mitochondrial transfer. ” Mitochondrial transfer has been a questionable option for families and is seen unmoral.
In a rare case, women can have mitochondrial defect; which, will cause their children to have problems, and could result in death (Parry). This option of doing the mitochondrial transfer allows the women with the mitochondrial disorder to have child of their own. This option to have child genetically made is improving the lives of these women. Diseases from these procedures can prevent diseases given by the parents. The genetically made babies could stop the genetic diseases from getting pasted down.
The possibility of altering a child’s appearance completely to the preferred option is very slim. In the article by Parry, he mentions how difficult it would be to alter height in a child, “Even [for] height, one of the most heritable traits known, scientists have found at least 50 genes that account for only 2 to 3 percent of the variance in the samples. ” The most likely use for mitochondrial transfer is stop certain disease and to allow women with the mitochondrial disorder to have children. In the end, Genetic research has improved many lives instead of destroyed them.
From the vast knowledge of what the world has gained from genetic research we now know many diseases. The genetic diseases that scientist discover, have solution or even cures to them. Criminal cases have become more accurate and easier solve with genetic research. Being able to find family members have become a possibility for many adoptive children. Genetic research is not just genetic modification, but it is also actual genetic research. The research obtained through going through DNA has vastly improved many lives.