As members of the Futurist of America Association, we have been assigned
to look specifically at the cause of the American Civil #War. There are five
aspects that could of led to the Civil War and they are Westward Movement,
Social Change, Froeign Policy Development, Government/Politics Development, and
Economic Development. Out of the five aspects, Economic Development is the best
reason for the eventual Civil War.
First, Westward Movement could of led to American Civil War because of
the Louisiana Purchase, Wilmont Proviso, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Popular
Sovereignity, Compromise of 1850, Missouri Compromise, “Bleeding Kansas”,
California Gold Rush, Manifest Destiny, and the Mistreatment of Native Americans.
The Louisiana Purchase was done by President Jefferson because he wanted to
doubled the size of the United States and to get control of New Orleans.
Wilmont Proviso was to ban slaves from territories that might gbe aquired from
Mexico. Kansas- Nebraska Act was the result of Douglas wanting to build
railroads from Chicago to San Franciso. Douglas was a big believer in popular
sovereignity, where the people have the right to decide if they want to be free
of slave state, and he completely ignore the Missoure Compromise. The Compromise
of 1850 stated that should be equal number of free and slave states. The
Missouri Compromise said that any state above the latitude of 36 30′ can not be
a slave state. “Bleeding Kansas” was where people were fighting over the issue
of slavery and cost many American Lives. The California Gold Rust occurred when
gold was discovered in California and people rushed out to California.When
California apply for statehood, it cause huge problems because North and the
South wanted control of the gold in the state. Manifest Destiny was where
Americans believe that they had the right to expand westward. The Treatment of
Native Americans was hoorible because Americans believe they were superior to
the Native Americans. All these issues seperated the North form the South
because each side a different view on each issue.
Westward Movement could of led to the Civil War, but did not because of
Henry Clay. When the Westward Movemet occurred new states started to enter the
union. This is where the promblems begins. Missouri was the first state, other
than Louisiana, to enter the union from the Louisiana Purchase and will give
impications on the status of slavery west of the Mississippi. If Missouri enter
the union as a free state, then the North will get control of the House of
Representatives because they would have more representatives. If Missouri enter
the union as slave, the South will get control over the House. Henry Clay saw
this issue cause a huge tension between the North and South, so he came up with
the Missouri Compromise. The Missouri Compromise stated that any states above
the latitude of 36 30′ must be free states. Missoure enter as slave state and to
even the number of slave and free, Maine also entered the union as a free state.
Both North and South agreed to this and by doing so Henry Clay helped the United
States from a civil war.
Second, Social Change could led to the Civil War because of Educational
Changes, Women’s Rights Movement, Prohibiton, and the Abolitionist Movement. The
Educational Movement was led by Horace Mann of Massachusetts. Mann worked for
the establishment of a state board of education and for taxes to local schools.
Women’s Rights Movement stood for equality among the two sexes. Seneca Falls
Convention was held by women for men to see that women should have equal rights.
Women in the South felt the same way, but they knew the men in the South did not
feel the same way as they did. Sojourner Truth, who was a Women’s Rights
activist and ex-slave, became famous when sh delievered a speech entitled “Ain’t
I a Women”. The powerful speech rally women to fight for their rights. Dorthea
Dix a woman her time to publicizing the inhumane treatment prevailing in prisons,
almshouses, and unsane houses. As a result, 15 states opened new hospitals for
the insane and others improved their supervision of penitentiaries, asylums, and
poorhouses. Prohibiton deals with the banning of alcohol . Religious groups
consider drinking alcohol is a sin and women being abuse rosed. Poverity and
crime rose, so the Anti-Saloon League was formed. It was organize in Ohio by
women, who marched to saloons to make them give up their businesses.
Abolitionist Movement stated with the Quarkers, who thought it was a sin to own
slaves. Frederick Douglass, who a runaway slave, became one of the most
effective voices aganist slavery. He started the Nortstar, which brought the
cruelities of slavery to the attention of the North. William Lloyd Garrison
published the Liberator, which started the antislavery moverment, in Boston. The
Dred Scot Case was where a slave from Missouri went to Wisconsin and got married.
The court had to decide if was Scott was a slave or free man. “Uncle Tom’s
Cabin” written by Harriet Breecher tells about the mistreatment of slaves in the
Social Change could of led to the Civil War by the Women’s Rights
Movement, Prohibition, and Abolitionists’ Movemnt, but did not because the ideas
were consider too radical at the time. The Women’s Rights Movemet did nothing to
separate the Norh from the South. Men in the North and the South belived it was
too extreme for women to have equal right…..s because they thought women as nothing
more than child barriers and housekeepers. Prohibition was an idea that alcohol
should be illegal because it ruin many home lives of Americans. Women were abuse
by their drunk husbands and as result battered women spoke out. Prohibiton did
no separate the North and South because the majority of the men from both sides
loved alcohol too much to listen. Abolitionists’ Movement not gain any support
from big cities up North. So how can the issue of slavery suppose to separate
the North from the South when they can not even gain support from the North?
Garrison, who wrote the Liberator, was mobbed in the streets of Boston and
almost lynched. In New York City, the Tappan brothers often recieved threats
because they supported a massive effort to print and distribute antislavery
pamphets through the U.S. mails. Citizens of New York Ciy consider them as
dangerous radicals. These ideas did not separate the North from the South, but
as least the ideas were out for the people to know about.
Third, Foreign Policy dealt with U.S. policies over foreign countries.
After the American Revolution, the Americans were still allies with France. In
1793, France declared on Great Britain and wanted aid from the United States,
considering the French helped the Americans defeat the British. Americans stayed
neutral, but the British closed French ports to neutral ships. As a result, the
Americans signed a treaty with Britain called Jay’s Treaty to remain neutral.
The French was digusted by the Americans, so in 1797 French privateers seized
more than 300 American vessals. Pinckney, Marshall, and Gerry were sent to get
compensation for the seized ships and to get out of being allies with France.
Talleyrand, the foreign minister, wanted 250,000 if they wanted to negotiated.
Americans did not want pay and the Americans left France. American’s commerical
relationship with France were suspended and Americans strengthens military and
naval forces. In 1799, French agreed to end being allies and removed the
commerical suspension. The Embargo of 1807 was the result of Britain and France
not respecting the United States being neutral. United States declared war on
the Barbory Pirates from Northern Africa from 1801 to 1805 because of the
robbings of American trade ships. The War of 1812 was between the United States
and Britain. New Englanders did not cooperate with the war effort. The Tariff of
1828 put haeavy taxsion on manufactured goods. The tariff hurted the South more
than the North. Foreign Policy could led to the Civil War but did not becaused
at the time United States was still a young and wanted to stay as one nation.The
incident between the United States and France in 1797-1799 greatly divided the
leaders of the United States. Jefferson, who was in favor of the French, and
Hamilton, who was not , disagreed on to support during war between Britain and
France, but both did not want to see the nation they fought for so hard to be
destroy in twenty years. The bad relationship between the United States and
France only separated the politicals leaders and the entire country.
Also Government/Politics could of led to the America Civil war because
of court cases such as Marbury vs. Madison, Dartmouth vs. Woodward, McCulloch vs.
Maryland, and Worester vs. Georgia. Then there were the Midnight Judges, Alien
and Sedation Act of 1798, Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, Daniel
Webster, and Political Parties all could of led to the American Civil War.
Marbury vs. Madison was about Adams wanting Marbury to get the job of Secretary
of State, but James Madison did not allow it. It was then taken to the Supreme
Court, where Chief Justice Marshall said the Supreme Court do not have control
over such matters. Dartmounth College vs. Woodward case was about New Hampshire
wanting to turn Dartmounth College from a private to a state unversity. The case
was thrown into the Supreme Court, where Chief Justice Marshall ruled that the
state did not have the right to change the school from private to state
university. McCulloch vs. Maryland centered around the State of Maryland taxing
the Bank of the United States. Worester vs. Georgia was where Georgia wanted to
extend their jurisdiction into the tribal lands of the Native Americans. The
“Midnight Judges” was where John Adams, who was the President of the United
States, appointed many of his party members into high powered positions just
before midnight of his last term as President. The Alien and Seditions Acts was
o change the school from private to state university. McCulloch vs. Maryland
centered around the State of Maryland taxing the Bank of the United States.
Worester vs. Georgia was where Georgia wanted to extend their jurisdiction into
the tribal lands of the Native Americans. The “Midnight Judges” was where John
Adams, who was the President of the United States, appointed many of his party
members into high powered positions just before midnight of his last term as
President. The Alien and Seditions Acts was o change the school from private to
state university. McCulloch v Government/Politics could of led to the Civil War,
but did not because of strong leaders such as Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.
The Tariff of 1828 alone wouldof led to the Civil War, but John C Calhoun came
up with Nullification, which said that states have the right to set aside
federal laws. In 1832, because of Calhoun Congress lowered the tariff.