Art History

Presenter: Welcome. Welcome, to the national radio, bringing you the latest news, and updates. Today we have a special guest speaker, all the way from France… I am happy to present Mr.. Dandier, the famous 19th century painter. Dandier: Bonus mane, hello… It’s a pleasure to be here. Presenter: Today our fans want to ask you a few questions about some of your paintings and the media you have used. Dandier: Well of course. Dandier picks up his water and takes a small sip. Presenter: The first painting our viewers are interested in, is your print Gargantuan. Dandier clears his throat.

Dandier: Ah yes, one of my finest caricatures. Presenter: So, Mr.. Dandier you are known as the Michelangelo of Caricatures, why is this? Dandier: Well, of course, as I use the process of lithography, which allows for quick, sketchy images that convey the sense of movement allowing my work to capture the unrehearsed moment. This is seen in Gargantuan, with the diagonal line of the bridge leading your eyes upwards to the kings open mouth, which helps to create movement in the static image and the sense of a candid moment. This emphasizes the “raw energy, spontaneity and candor”-(http://www. Retable. Mom/artists/ honoree_dandier/more_information/style_and_technique) through out the image. Presenter: What processes do you use to create your lithographs? Dandier: I first make a series of rough drawings, and then they are transferred onto limestone with a greasy touches, by the use of red crayon, allowing the drawing to become visible. I have to make sure the limestone is flat; to do this I grind the stone to get the level of grit I require. To make sure that it is flat I grind it against another stone, if it is not flat it will break under the pressure of the press.

To get a three dimensional effect I hatch y lines, and continually build them up to create shadow and depth. This is acquired by using line work, etched in by a sharp object. For example you can tell that the King is in the background, as he is dipped in shadow created by hatched lines, while the peasants are in the foreground as they have less shadows and more light areas. I achieve this effect by changing the width of the hatching. For example in darker areas I hatch the lines closer together, while in lighter areas the lines are further apart.

Dandier: I printed Gargantuan in La Caricature founded by Charles in 830, as I am a political cartoonist for that newspaper. I placed the caricature in this newspaper, so that all the working class would able to view the work, as the newspaper is rather cheap allowing for all classes to afford. Each week I have to invent new caricatures as the newspaper is published weekly. This is why I like to use lithographs, as it is easily mass-produced and is reasonably fast to design and produce. I find that Caricatures are more important than freedom of speech.

This is because words speak to a person’s intelligence becoming limited to the educated and upper class. While images speak directly to your emotions, which is why caricatures are more popular with working class. Caricatures not only give form to an idea; it transforms them into performances before the viewer’s eyes. Presenter: What influenced you to create Gargantuan, and how do you think the media adds to your message? Dandier: Well I based the subject matter of this caricature off France’s political and social disturbance, during the time of the France revolution in sass’s.

At this time Charles X was dethroned because of attacks on freedom of press. The revolution then brought to power King Louis Philippe who took a direct political ole in the revolution, to my surprise… Presenter: Excuse me Mr.. Dandier. You were in France during the time of the revolution, weren’t you? Dandier: Yes I was, and what I saw really moved me, causing me to take the Job of being a political cartoonist. However even with the new king, Louis Philippe, the government’s creeping aggression on the freedom of the press influenced my caricatures, particularly after the conquest of Democrat uprisings in 1834.

In Gargantuan I portray the king as a greedy political exploiter referring to the corruption and ignorance of Louis Philippe. I eve positioned the king on top of his throne in the background, eating the taxpayer’s dollars that are delivering then into his open mouth. By using lithograph, it allows myself to leave strong flat white areas, which contrast against the detailed hatched areas, which draws your eyes to the main protagonist, of King Louise, who is sitting upon his throne, with working class men delivering taxpayers dollars to his open mouth.

Also by using outlines and darker areas of hatching on the peasant in the foreground and King Louse’s head in the background helps the king stand out. While I lace the other citizens who gather around the kings feet collecting coins and documents in mid-tones, allowing the king to stand out. Presenter: Mr.. Dandier. Have you ever been imprisoned for you political caricatures? Dandier: Well yes, I was falsely imprisoned because of my depictions of the king as Gargantuan and my philosophical attitude. I was charged with sedition and sentenced to 6 months in prison.

I was held in Pelagic prison from the summer of 1832 till February of 1833. They king was in uproar about the fact I had implied by the use of my lithography that he was a corrupt king, who was devouring all the taxpayers none. РІР?Сћ The second artwork is one to your oil paintings, The Uprising. Now, Mr. Dandier, you are known as an excellent draftsman, can you explain why this is? Dandier: Oh yes… Well a draftsman is a person who prefers to draw, rather than paint or sculpt. Now in The Uprising this is obvious, as I like to outline my figures in black, made with black charcoal and lithographic crayon, as if it was a caricature.

Theses lines have been at times called grotesque by some critics, as they are uneven, with some thick, and some thin. However I find this brings character to the piece, and emphasizes the strength of the men’s will power. I also enjoy succumbing on my paint, creating a dirty texture, linking my media to the idea of the peasants being the “salt of the earth”. I also like to use chisel-ended brushes to dab on the paint, especially on the faces, where I haven’t blended the half tones causing the faces to become less defined and less individualized. Presenter: Mr.. Dandier.

What medium have you used to create this masterpiece? Dandier: Well of course I have used oil paints, which is the process of painting with pigments that are bound with drying oil. Now oil paints have been used in Europe since the 12th century, but were adopted, as an artistic medium in the 15th century, eventually becoming the major medium used for painting… Presenter: Sorry, but during the 19th century, when you were you could also by tubes of paint, is this correct? Dandier: Well yes. A portrait painter John G. Rand created them in 1841 Present: But Mr.. Dandier, how would this have helped you to paint?

Dandier: This meant paints could be mass-produced in tin tubes with a cap. They create a wider range of color pigments. This also meant that you can add paint straight onto the novas, and that you can work outside of the studio. Oil paints allow me to create rather gesturer, or impasto brush strokes, for example in The Uprising I have really hacked on the paint conveying the power of the men, and their will power. The use of oils has also allowed me to let the reddish-brown under painting show through, creating an unfinished look, which most critics seem to hate, while I find it gives the piece depth, and tonal contrast.

Presenter: Mr.. Dandier, what processes do you use to apply the medium onto the work? Dandier: Ham, well first I sketch the subject onto the canvas with charcoal oh can see this. Next I apply size, which seals the canvas. I then like to succumb layers of reddish brown paint for the understanding, helping to create tonal contrast. This also adds an empty tone to the painting helping to create tonal contrast of the bottom and top colors. When I am applying my paint I have to go by the rule of fat over lean. This means that each new layer contains more oil than the layer below.

If I were to create a new layer that contains less oil, the painting will crack and peel. I like to also uses broken color, this when I use little dabs to create an Impasto effect, and gesturer finish. For example you can see this on the figures. They are undefined because of the gesturer brush strokes, and at times they seem to combine because of little definition. I also like to leave my painting unfinished allowing the canvas to show through and enable the canvas, and allow the undercoating to be perceived by the naked eye Presenter: Some people say that your paint is laid down in what can be described as a naive manner, why is this?

Dandier: This is most likely because of my background in lithography as it provides me with a different set of tools than those available to there painters. It is almost as if I translate a print-image unto a painting. The marks of my brushstrokes are evident; the black lines outline the contours of the figures, which are somewhat grotesque. I have also used brutal conversions from dark to light, for example some of the figures emerge from the shadows with a few hints of light touching their faces. I actually like to model the figures through shadows and changes in tonality.

Most of my figures in the painting have the essential facial features to create an illusion, however, they are almost mask like. I actually tended to del subjects in clay from which I would draw and paint. This is why my have a fleshy quality to them, as if their faces were easily impressionable. My friend Charles Baudelaire a contemporary poet actually described myself as “one of the most important men, not Just of caricature, but of modern art”, he never thought of my manner as naive. My aim in his painting is to truthfully present the lives of peasant workers, and accurately depict their struggles in his paintings.

My painting style also is a reflection of my aversion to bourgeois culture, as it is in many ways untrained ND uneducated. Presenter: What was your inspiration to paint The Uprising? Dandier: Well this painting is referring to the 1848 revolution in Paris, when king Louis Phillip was over thrown. In this year there were violent class struggle between the working and upper class. This was known as the “Bloody June Days”, I was in Paris during the time and was moved by the atrocities I had seen. In this painting I have posed the main figure as a focal point that is leading the angry mob.

I emphasize the characters importance through his prominent placement and pose, and by using the throng diagonal line of the raised arm directs the crowd forward. I also use gesturer brush strokes to symbolize strength, determination and will power of the men. It is clear that I am sympathetic towards the causes of the revolution, with the eyes of the figure dark and soulful. However in my painting I have left it in an unfinished state to express the mood, and this helps to give it a modern look, foreshadowing the style of the impressionists. In the painting, each face in the crowd is a person, however none are identifiable…

Present: Ham… Mr. Dandier, but is it true you never painted from ell life? Dandier: Well yes, it wasn’t actually painted during this time, as it is not a realistic depiction of the events, however captures the emotions of the people and moment. I actually never painted from life; instead I painted the painting one-year after the revolution as I have an amazing visual memory. Presenter: Now, onto the final painting, the First Class Carriage. It is from a series of three, now, why have you painted it in the medium of watercolors rather than oil?

Dandier: Why yes, The First Class Carriage is from a series of three; the others are the Second and Third Class Carriage. Compared to the others I have used watercolors, instead of oil, however I have also done another watercolors of the Third Class Carriage latter. Watercolors is a medium of paint, however it refers to all pigments mixed with water rather than oil. One reason I nave preferred this medium is that watercolors is translucent, and appearing luminous because the pigments are laid down in a pure form, which is painted on wet strength paper.

This is seen in the First Class Carriage, for example I have applied light washes, creating the highlights, or I have let the canvas show through to create a harsh light source, like on the mans ace, while I have applied a very translucent grey to soften the woman’s face. Because of its opacity it also allows the brown, and blue washes to show through. For example on the figures I have applied tones of brown or blue for the mid-tones, and black browns for the darker tones, which are layered up because of their opacity, helping to create tonal contrast.

During my time of painting quarrels grew from the simple wash coloring of a drawing into a technique of a complete painting. I found that the advantages of watercolors are the ease and quickness of its application with the reinsurance effect, in the ability of its colors, and its cheapness. It is also very quick to drying. However the handling demands significant skill as it is a moderately fragile medium; it cannot be exposed to sunlight, dust, and contact with glass surfaces. By using watercolors it becomes the “rosiest picture”- (http://www. Ratable. Mom/artists/ honoree_dandier/paintings/the_third-class_carriage) compared to the other two, which suggest it is better in the upper class. I have done this by using pastel colors, for example on women’s red ribbon or on the other women’s blue top and ribbon, which is not my typical color palette. Normally I would prefer to use oil paints, however because of the idea that the upper class is better off, I used watercolors to create contrast between the three works. Presenter: Mr.. Dandier, can you explain the applications you have used to create this artwork? Dandier: ham.

Well let’s see… First I pick out a neutral tone such as a grey brown, making it a light, transparent tone, which can easily be covered by brushstrokes. You can see this in the First Class Carriage, with the grey brown background coming through with some blues to create a pure environment. This compares to the use of oils in the third, where the brown is very dirty, linking to the idea of the salts of the Earth. I also allow the white of the canvas to show through, which creates a brutal light. This is especially obvious on the older man to the right of the canvas.

Here he becomes the secondary focal point, with the softness of the paper. This is not symbolic, while in the Third Class Carriage; the women are spot lit by the white of the canvas, which is symbolic, and causes them to become rather heavenly. The man in the First Class Carriage is balanced by the brightness of the Indo on the left of the frame, which I have left white, with small washes of green. After I have made the washes I then make a very light wash over the shadow areas, and I tint the background in a series of lighter washes.

I then apply more colors where needed, but very gradually, which avoids Jumping in my values. After I add detail with little water and careful brushstrokes. Unlike oil paints, watercolors essentially stays where they are put and dry in the form they are applied, which makes it very hard to paint with. This allows for a washy painting, seen in the First Class Carriage, and also creates a very loose and sketchy finish showing how I am a draftsman. Presenter:: In the First Class Carriage, the line seems to nave a elite to its own, why is this?

Dandier: Well, I received little training as an artist as my career mainly focused on lithography and caricatures. At the age of 16, I began receiving training in the art of lithography with Alexander Lenore. This is seen in the first and Third Class Carriage, as I reflect the same stylistic techniques found in my caricatures. This is shown with the use of line work, outlining the forms of the figures, made from Harold and pencil. This creates freedom of the brushstrokes, meaning that the lines, shapes and shadows don’t seem to connect.

This causes some of the edges to become defined, like in the women’s hair, the lace or on the clothes, however the lines are rather soft because the line and shapes do not match up through color. Presenter: Mr.. Dandier, Baudelaire has described you as the artist with “the capacity to capture heroism in modern day life”. Why do you think he has said this? Dandier: Yes I enjoy depicting the mundane aspects of life, and the ordinary people in it. This s why I show the train Journeys of thee different classes of people.

I think I am quite objective about what I see, I don’t try to clamoring the scenes I draw and paint, not like my fallow painter Engine. For example in the watercolors of the Third Class Carriage I show it as crowded and dirty. Presenter: But excuse me Mr.. Dandier the light in the Third Class Carriage seems to suggest something different. Dandier: Well yes the light causes it to become a little up lifting, and almost heavenly, because I have allowed the white of the paper to show through far more. This is shown on the woo women to the left, dipped in bright light.

Presenter: Yes you have done the same on the First Class Carriage. Dandier: Here I want to show the first class as far more comfortable and clean. This is helped by the pure pastel colors, like on the women’s red ribbon, and lady blue dress. The working classes are stuck in an unclean, cramped environment. This is shown through the use of dirty brown colors, and darker highlights, and shadows in the Third Class Carriage, with no bright, pure colors, like in the First Class Carriage. Presenter: Yes Mr.. Dandier, the First Class Carriage seems more uplifting and optimistic.

Dandier: Yes, but I have still made the atmosphere quiet and reflective like the people are in their own world. I have impartially shown that they are separate from each other on the train ride. This has been emphasized by using hatched shadows and the white canvas showing though in the highlights, which helps separate the individuals. This is showing through the light shadows, and emptiness, which shows that I am observing impartially. However in the Third Class Carriage it is less detailed, people are calm and thoughtful, as if they are suffering the discomfort of their travels silently.

I really eke to focus on representations of Parisian life, especially the consequences of the industrial revolution in the popularity of steam trains today. Present: Thank you for coming Mr.. Dandier; it was a real treat for our listeners. I’m sure they really enjoyed listening to your answers. Dandier: No, thank you for having Presenter: Now next week we have a really treat. We have managed to get hold of Degas, and en NAS promised to come into the studio tort an interview. It you nave any questions you would like us to ask him, write then on our website, www. Nationalizes. Com or call 301 985 6280… Coming up next is national news.

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