Chapter 1 Reading Guide From Human Prehistory to the Early River Valley Civilizations DIRECTIONS: Read Chapter 1: From Human Prehistory to the Early River Valley Civilizations DIRECTIONS: Define the following vocabulary terms. Paleolithic Age: The Old Stone Age ending in 12,000 b. c. e. ; typified by use of crude stone tools and hunting and gathering for subsistence. Neolithic Age: The New Stone Age between 8000 and 5000 b. c. e. ; period in which adaption of sedentary agriculture occurred; domestication of plants and animals accomplished.
Neolithic Revolution: The succession of technological innovations and changes in human organization that ed to the development of agriculture, 8500-3500 b. c. e. Hunting & Gathering: Means of obtaining subsistence by human species prior to the adaptation of sedentary agriculture; normally typical of band social organization. Civilization: Societies distinguished by reliance on sedentary agriculture, ability to produce food surpluses, and existence of non farming elites, as well as merchant and manufacturing groups.
Cuneiform: A form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge-shaped stylus and clay tablets. Nomads: Cattle- and sheep-herding societies normally found n the fringes of civilized societies; commonly referred to as “barbarian” by civilized societies. Mesopotamia: Literally “between the riversm the civilizations that arose in the alluvial plain of the Tigris-Euphrates river valleys. Sumerians: People who migrated into Mesopotamia c. 4000 b. c. e. ; created first civilization within religion; organized area into city-states. Ziggurats: Massive towers usually associated with Mesopotamian temple complexes.
City-state: A form of political organization typical of Mesopotamian civilizations; consisted of agricultural hinterlands ruled by an urban-based king. Babylonian Empire: Unified all of Mesopotamia c. 1800 b. c. e. : collapsed due to foreign invasion c. 1600 b. c. e. Hammurabi: The most important ruler of the Babylonian empire; responsible for codification of law. Pharaoh: Title of kings of ancient Egypt. Pyramids: Monumental architecture typical of Old Kingdom Egypt; used as burial sites for pharaohs. Kush: An african state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c. 1000 b. c. . ; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries. Indus River Valley: River sources in Himalayas to mouth in Arabian Sea; location of Harappan civilization. Harappa: Along with Mohenjo-daro, major urban complex of the Harappan civilization; laid out on planned grid pattern. Mohenjo Daro: Along with Harappa, major urban complex of the Harappan civilization; laid out on planned grid pattern. Yellow River: Also known as the Huanghe; site of development of sedentary agriculture in China. Shang: First Chinese dynasty for which archeological evidence exists; capital located in Ordos bend.
Oracles: Shamans or priests in Chinese society who foretold the future through interpretations of animal bones cracked by heat; inscriptions on bones led to Chinese writing. Ideographs: Pictographic characters Seafaring civilization located on the shores of the eastern Mediterranean; established colonies throughout the Mediterranean. Monotheism: The exclusive worship of a single god; introduced by the Jews into Western civilization. Polytheism: The practice of worshipping multiple gods or goddesses. Epic of Gilgamesh*: The first literary epic in Western civilization; written down c. 2000 b. c. e. included story of Great Flood. Hittites*: An Indo-European people who entered Mesopotamia c. 1750 b. c. e. ; destroyed the Babylonian empire; swept away c. 1200 b. c. . Hieroglyphics*: The form of writing developed in ancient Egypt; more pictorial than Mesopotamian cuneiform. Animism*: A religious outlook that sees gods in many aspects of nature and propagates them to help control and explain nature; typical of Mesopotamian religions. Patriarchal*: Societies in which women defer to men; societies run by men and based on the assumption that men naturally directed political, economic, and cultural life.
Matrilineal*: Family descent and inheritance traced through the female line. Aztecs*: The Mexica; one of the nomadic tribes that used political anarchy after all of Tolects to penetrate into the sedentary agricultural zone of Mesoamerican plateau; established empire after 1325 around shores of Lake Texcoco. ChaVn [alt. Chavin]*: Appeared in highlands of Andes between 1800 and 1200 b. c. e. ; typified by ceremonial centers with large stone buildings; greatest ceremonial center was ChaVn de Huantar; characterized by artistic motifs.
Pastoralism*: A nomadic agricultural lifestyle based on herding domesticated animals; tended to produce independent people capable of challenging sedentary agricultural societies. * The definitions for these words can be found online using the flashcards for this hapter. DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions in complete sentences. You should write both the question and the answer. 1 . How and where did agricultural societies first emerge? a. Agricultural societies first emerged as a radical change in humans’ way of life. 2. How did sedentary agriculture lead to societal changes? a.
Humans no longer needed to migrate and they could settle in one place. 3. What are the characteristics of civilizations & where did the first ones arise? a. The characteristics of civilizations are society, education, technology, religion and government. Mesopotamia was the first complex civilization to develop. . How did geography influence the rise of civilizations? Geography is important to civilizations. Many civilizations began near bodies of water, because we need water to live. Some people lived in flatland places where there was a lot to hunt. Others lived around mountains for protection from other tribes and for better weather. . What political, social, religious & social institutions arose? a. Political: As societies became more stable, there were opportunities for leaders that could tell people what do and make sure everyone was under control. b. Social: Farmers began to grow more food than they needed which led to some people eing able to quit farming and work on new skills like art and construction. c. Social Institutions: Hammurabi’s Code was created to establish order. 6. What social hierarchies, assigned gender roles, and social inequalities arose? a. There were different social classes; Kings, The Noble, The Military, Priests and Slaves 7.
What was the most important contribution of Judaism? Monotheism was the most important contribution to Judaism. DIRECTIONS: Choose the BEST answer for the following multiple choice questions. You should write both the question and the correct answer. 1 . The first truly revolutionary transformation of human society was a. he use of fire. b. the growth of towns and cities. c. the rising of farming. d. the creation of specialized classes. 2. Women were probably the first farmers because a. men exclusively hunted because of their superior strength. b. as gatherers they generally knew which seeds to eat and where they grew. c. n subsequent eras, women and not men in most world societies were farmers. d. records from the period indicate women originated farming. 3. The strongest competitor to sedentary agriculture during the Neolithic Age was a. pastoralism or a nomadic herding way of life. b. slash and burn agriculture. c. increased gathering. d. ishing and aquatic agriculture. 4. Agricultural surpluses seem to have led most directly to a. the rise of cities as regional trading hubs and centralized government. b. the outbreak of warfare between hunter-gatherers and sedentary farmers. c. the eventual extinction of Paleolithic peoples and cultures. d. he development of specialized services and socially differentiated hierarchies. 5. The start of sedentary agriculture a. occurred simultaneously in various places and spread around the world. b. started in southwest Asia first but developed independently in other places later. c. arose in the river valleys of the Huang-he and Yangtze. . began after the abandonment of hunting and gathering. 6. Cities in the ancient Near East and Egypt were a. exclusively religious in nature and the center of local worship. b. centers of trade, specialized manufacture, and the exchange of ideas. c. independent of the local and regional economies. . largely military in nature, complete with standing armies. men went to live with their wives’ families. b. A woman could have had more than one husband. c. After marriage, a woman moved to the residence of her husband’s family. d. Women and men had equal legal rights as written into the first law codes. . Periodic nomadic invasions in the early history of the Middle East a. caused disruptions but facilitated innovations and prompted synthesis. b. were easily beaten back by the technologically advanced sedentary peoples. c. caused mass popular migrations throughout the Middle East. d. ailed to upset the established political and social patterns of the region. 9. The Fertile Crescent has been called the crossroads of the world because it was a. the first center of advanced civilization. b. protected from invasion by the deserts and mountains. c. on the routes connecting Europe, Asia, and Africa. d. ivilization spread outward from the Fertile Crescent to other regions. 10. Unlike Sumer and Egypt, the Indus Valley or Harappan civilization a. became a geographic center for a unified, continuous culture lasting millennia. b. was secure from nomadic incursions and invasions. c. ever developed a military social class. d. writing has never been translated. 1 1 . Compared to river valley cultures in Egypt and Mesopotamia, civilization in China a. probably developed after civilizations in the Nile Valley and Southwest Asia. b. predates the rise of civilization in both Egypt and Mesopotamia. c. developed imultaneously with Egypt and Mesopotamia. d. has no verifiable historic origins and left no written records. 12. In early China, unity and cultural identity were provided by a. divine monarchs. b. shared religious ceremonies. c. philosophical Buddhism. d. a common system of writing. 13.
Unlike the Harappan civilization, Hindu, Chinese, and Mesopotamian cultures a. Had little use for writing and written records. b. Granted women extensive rights and influence. c. Developed systems and technologies to resist or to assimilate nomadic invaders. d. Had no contacts with nomadic groups or different cultures. 14. Civilizations arose in all of the following river valleys as a result of the Neolithic Revolution EXCEPT: a. Nile River b. Tigris and Euphrates Rivers c. Niger River DIRECTIONS: Using the related maps, answer the following questions in complete sentences. You should write both the question and the answer. . Map 1. 1: The Spread of Human Populations, c. 10,000 B. C. E. (Page 12) Why does Africa appear to be the home of humans and their near relatives? The apelike species, Homo erectus developed and spread in Africa. What evidence verifies that man migrated to the Americas and Australia? Many of the human remains and rtifacts match those of human remains and artifacts in Africa and Asia. 2. Map 1. 2: The Spread of Agriculture (Page 14) What region seems to be the most important core area for agriculture? Why? The Middle East seems to be the most important because most agriculture spread from the Middle East.
What proof exists that agriculture originated in one area but spread to others? The evidence that people where becoming dependent on regular harvest. What products seem to have had two areas of first cultivation? Wheat and barley were the products found in the first cultivations. Theorize how bananas, rice, and ams arrived in Africa. Bananas, rice and yams came from Southest Asia. 3. Map 1. 4: Mesopotamia in Maps (Page 20) Why is Mesopotamia exposed to attack? Mesopotamia is exposed to attack because it’s surrounded by water; anyone can invade. What benefit was there to having larger empires?
Larger empires had more resources and larger armies. Why would this region be a crossroad? With what results? This area would be a crossroad because most civilizations lived here and there were surpluses of resources. The result would be more cultural and trade connections and a decrease in resources. 4. Map 1. : Egypt, Kush, and Axum (Page 21) What geographic features protect Egypt from invasion? The Nubian Mountains and Libyan Desert protect Egypt from invasion. How does the Nile River affect movement? The Nile River flows north. From what directions would Egypt experience foreign contacts?
Egypt would experience foreign contacts from the east and south. How is Kush even more isolated? Kush is isolated due to the Nubian Moutains, surrounding rivers and its southern location. Which civilization would have had the greatest influence on Kush? Why? Nubia would have the greatest influence on Kush because it’s the closest civilization. DIRECTIONS: Respond to the following essays prompts. Each of your essays should be 1 to 2 typed pages, and include both an introduction and a conclusion paragraph. In either your introduction or your conclusion you must have a thesis sentence. he following: government, religion, social interactions, technology, economy/trade, and geography, art/writing. The Tigris-Euphrates civilization and the Egyptian civilizations were two of the first river valley civilizations in the world. With this being known as a fact, it is also true that both civilizations have shared characteristics, along with specific differences. The Tigris-Euphrates civilization had a geography that was perfect for farming, unlike the Egyptian civilization. Farming in the Tigris-Euphrates area required great coordination among the communities, which led to a complex political structure.
This civilization also differs from the Egyptian civilization when it comes to writing. The Sumerians created a form of writing called cuneiform. It is the first known form of writing. The alphabet first was composed of different pictures to match sounds but later shifted to the use of geometric shapes. Writing and reading were complex skills o only Scribes had to learn it. The Sumerians stressed the importance of organized city-states. The city-states were ruled by a king who claim divine authority. There were very defined boundaries in the Sumerian state.
The government helped to regulate religion and enforce work duties. The government also provided a court system. The Egyptian civilization was located in northern Africa. The Nile River provided water for drinking, bathing, and trade travel. The hot climate would only allow for little irrigation near the Nile. Government may have been necessary to maintain coordination of irrigation. Just like the Tigris-Euphrates civilization, the people were governed by a king or pharaoh. The Egyptian alphabet was Just as elaborate as that of the Tigris-Euphrates civilization.
They used art and pictures to communicate through writing. Both civilizations had a similar government and writing features but also had similar religious beliefs. Both the Tigris-Euphrates and Egyptian civilizations were polytheistic; belief in multiple gods. These civilizations dedicated palaces, furnishings and artworks to their gods. In conclusion, the Tigris-Euphrates and Egyptian civilizations have many similar and different characteristics. They are both two of the world’s earliest civilizations. Their cultures have influenced many other Mediterranean civilizations. conomic changes and continuations over time, ultimately leading to the development of complex civilizations. The development of agriculture was one of the most important developments of the early civilizations. It encouraged the formation of larger, more stable communities. Agriculture set the basis for more rapid human change. Before agriculture, during the Neolithic times, humans were hunters and gatherers. Hunters turned to game like deer and wild boar. Gatherers would search or grains, berries and nuts. Eventually, areas would run out of food resources so humans had to migrate.
With agriculture, humans could settle in one spot and no longer had to migrate to find food. The deliberate planting of seeds (probably accidental in the beginning) started the farming process. As farming evolved, animals like pigs, sheep, goats, and cattle were domesticated. These animals were used for meat and skins as well as dairy. Farming initially started in the Middle East and with time, spread to other areas of the world. Farming methods were different in different regions of the world. There were also ifferent climates and natural resources which allowed for various types of goods.
Due to the lack of needed goods in a region, the people would travel to other civilizations and trade with the people of those civilizations. This act of travel and trade for resources became popular and soon most civilizations were doing it. Trade allowed for the start of an economic system amongst the civilizations. Merchants began to make profits off of sold goods. Because of this, merchants gained high positions politically. civilizations. It led to cultural and economic advancements. This eventually led to the development of many complex civilizations.