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From Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations

Chapter Review Human migration began in eastern Africa, where remains of the earliest types of human remains were found to originate. Gradual migration was caused by the need to find scarce food and slowly caused the spread of the human population across to the Americas and Australia. Agricultural societies first emerged in the middle east. Since population was increasing, it encouraged people to find a more reliable food source and since the ice age had come to an end, it brought the retreat of certain big game animals such as mastodons Settled and built houses?

Civilization first arose in egypt, mesopotamia, indus river basin, and china. Characteristics included cities, government, religion, writing, art, and social structure.? The civilizations differed depending on the geography of the location. The geography decided what types of houses agriculture and food sources they needed to survive.? Political – kings, government and priesthood? Religious – they believed in powerful gods, performed rituals, and had temples for gods? Social – alphabet? Economic – independent businesses and slaves? People in civilizations looked down upon societies that lacked civilizations.?

The government enforced duties and a court system was provided.? Judaism gave the world a clear monotheistic religion.? The older civilizations depended greater on hunting and gathering and the newer civilizations agriculture, domestication of plants and animals. They all used tools, they all believed in a form of religion, had formal governments, and writing.??? ??? Vocabulary and Identifications Paleolithic Age (Old Stone) – The Old Stone Age ending in 12,000 B. C. E; typified by use of crude stone tools and hunting and gathering for subsistence.

Neolithic Age (New Stone) – The New Stone Age between 8,000 and 5,000 B. C. E. ; period in which adaptation of sedentary agriculture occurred; domestication of plants and animals accomplished.? Slash and Burn Agriculture – A system of cultivation typical of shifting cultivators; forest floors cleared by fire are then planted. ? Neolithic Revolution(s) – The Succession of technological innovations and changes in human organization that led to the development of agriculture, 8,5000 – 3,5000 B. C. E.? Pastoralism – social organization based on livestock raising as the primary economic activity.?

Domestication – To tame an animal and keep it as a pet or for farm produce? Sedentary – Not migratory ? Civilization – the stage of cultural development at which writing and the keeping of written records is attained? Institution – a society or organization founded for a religious, educational, social, or similar purpose? Patriarchal – a system of society or government controlled by men? Animism – A religious outlook that sees gods in many aspect of nature and propitiates them to help control and explain nature, typical of Mesopotamian religoins? Polytheism – The belief of more than one god?

Monotheism – The belief that there is only one god? Map exercises?? Map 1. 1: The spread of Human Populations, c. 10,000 B. C. E? Africa appears to be the home of humans and their near relatives because the human populations originated in this area.? Human remains such as bones and artifacts provide evidence that verifies that man migrated to the Americas and Australia.? Map 1. 2:The Spread of Agriculture The middle east seems to be the most important core are for agriculture because it spread its agriculture to many more regions than any other core area of agriculture.?

The area that had the greater advancements had originated the spread of agriculture to the other areas surrounding it.? Beans and yams had two different areas of first cultivation.? Bananas, rice, and yams arrived in Africa when people from other parts migrated and spread their culture to those parts of Africa. Map 1. 3: Egypt, Kush, and Axum The rivers and many bodies of water protect Egypt from invasion.? The Nile River speeds up transportation.? Egypt would experience foreign contact from the north and south.? Kush is more separated because it isn’t settled near a river.?

Nubia would have the greatest influence on Kush because they neighbor each other. Visualizing the Past: Mesopotamia in Maps? Mesopotamia is exposed to attack because it is centered in a valley. Having larger empires influenced many other civilizations around the empire.? This region would be a crossroad because it was in the center of the route connecting Europe, Asia, and Africa; this would greatly influence the people that traveled the route with the Mesopotamian civilization.? Document analysis: Hammurabi’s Law Code? A. Analysis?

The Document was written by the king of Babylon, Hammurabi.? Hammurabi’s point of view was as a king.? The document is very reliable because it is a primary source.? The document was intended to establish rules and procedures for courts of law and helped regulate property right and the duties of family members, and set punishments for crimes.? The intended audience were the people of Mesopotamia.? The document has a serious tone that was meant to be obeyed. ? Drawing Conclusion? The document discussed the duties of family members and it set punishments for crimes.?

The document revealed that the Mesopotamians were monotheistic. ? Multiple – Choice Questions? The first truly revolutionary transformation of human society was the ______. D. Rise of farming. ?? Women were probably the first farmers because ___________. B. As gatherers they generally knew which seeds to eat and where they grew.?? The strongest competitor to sedentary agriculture during the Neolithic Age was _____. A. Pastoralism or a nomadic herding way of life. Agriculture surpluses seem to have led most directly to ________. A. The rise of cities?

The start of sedentary agriculture __________. E. Began after the abandonment of hunting and gathering Cities in the ancient agrarian civilizations were _______. C. Independent of the local regional economies. 7. In river valley societies priest developed considerable social power because they _____. A. Controlled agriculture Which of these is an example of patriarchal society in the ancient world? E. After marriage, a woman moved to the residence of her husband’s family.? 9. Periodic nomadic invasions in the early history of the Middle East _______.? E.

Failed to upset the established political and social patters of the region.? The Fertile Crescent has been called the crossroads of the world because it was __.? D. On the routes connecting Europe, Asia, and Africa.? 11. Unlike Sumer and Egypt, the Indus Valley or Harappan civilization _______.? D. Never developed a military social class.? 12. Compared to river valley cultures in Egypt and Mesopotamia, Chinese civilization ______. A. Probably developed after civilizations in the Nile Valley and Southwest Asia.? The aryan invaders of the Indus Valley ______.?

C. Are related to Indo-Europeans and Iranians. In early China, unity and cultural identity were provided by ______. A. Divine monarchs? Unlike the Hardpan civilization, Hindu, Chinese, and Mesopotamian cultures __.? C. Developed systems and technologies to resist or to assimilate nomadic invaders.? Essay Questions The role of a male during the Paleolithic age was supplying food for the population by hunting, but as the first sedentary civilizations arose in the Neolithic ages, women started to play greater roles in supplying food through agriculture.?

Indus River and The Huanghe Civilization? Although they were both settled along rivers, the Indus River civilization grew to be prosperous and built many great cities. The civilization along the Haunghe on the other hand developed in great isolation. Both civilizations developed their own distinctive alphabet. Both civilizations had their own advancements, such as the way the people of the Indus River had houses with running water, and the people along the Haunghe were capable or riding horses and used bronze well.? The first river valley civilizations were all controlled or looked up to a ruler.

The ruler was either a king or priest. The people were divided into social class depending on their role in the society. The ruler, the king or priest, was ranked highly. Then came the skilled workers and traders. The lowest class were the serfs or the ‘untouchables. ‘ In the society, men worked in their social class, or the job that they carried out in the society. In the Indus River valley civilization, women were ranked highly because of their ability to produce offspring, but in the Huanghe civilization the authority of the family belongs to the father.

The father always arranges the marriages for his daughters, and controls the amount of education received by the children and chooses the career for his sons. ? Both Egypt and Mesopotamia developed differently. Mesopotamia was flat, and had barley any natural barrier to protect it from invasion from the north, this could be the reason why Mesopotamians thought in terms of expansion. Egypt on the other hand wasn’t isolated, but was more independent. There were major trade and interaction along the Nile to the south, which brought common influences with the people f Kush and Ethiopia. Influence and trade also linked Egypt to Mediterranean islands, such as Crete.? From the earlier societies of the Paleolithic societies to the first river valley civilizations, different advancements came about. Lifestyles changed from a nomadic hunting way of life to a sedentary agricultural lifestyle. Some polytheistic beliefs remained but monotheistic beliefs began to arise. Societies began farming and irrigating and developed cites and ways of governing themselves. They developed greater tools and the Chinese also developed iron.?

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