Us History Study Notes
The Peugeot Indians resided near the mouth of the Connecticut River which is also where Puritan settlers led by John Winthrop son were trying to launch a town. Fearing the Peugeot would recruit all other Indians against the English, the English unleashed an all-out war with the Peugeot. The Puritans allies were shocked at the carnage. Over 400 Indian men women and children died.
New England negotiated most of their land out to keep the peace. Igniting Loyola- Spanish soldier that led the new Catholic religious order called the Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits and represented one dimension of the Counter-Reformation. Willing to give up their lives for their beliefs, the dedicated missionaries and teachers helped reemerging the Catholic faith and spread it to distant parts of the world. Romance Island-May 1587 John White led a English venture to America 1 people, including women and children. The planned on settling in Chesapeake Bay but ended up North at Romance Island.
White got send back in August to England for more supplies but he got held up for three hrs and when he returned in 1590 it was deserted. The word Croatian carved on a post suggesting that the survivors Joined the nearby tribe but no one knows. Its also known as the “Lost Colony’ Encompass- The Spanish inconvenience system, imposed in Spain American empire, requiring Indian communities to supply labor or pay tribute to a local colonial overload. Basically the Spanish led occasional raids on the Plains Indians and kept some captives and shipped others to the south to be slaves in the Mexican silver mines.
Iroquois League- a Native American confederacy, located in central New York, originally composed of the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca Indians and later including the Educators. This defeat sparked decades of warfare against the French. For the newcomers of France the victory sealed good relations with the Algonquin and Huron ensuring the survival of Quebec and spurring commerce. In 15 hrs Native Americans were trading 12-15,000 beaver pelts annually via the SST Lawrence River Valley. John Roller- discovered a hybrid tobacco. The production of the leaf soared at Jamestown. Married Pocahontas who was the daughter of Chief Phaeton.
Bacon’s Rebellion- armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers led by young Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley. He wanted the governor to form a militia to protect settlers. As an incentive to Bacon recruits, they could sale and Indians they caught into slavery. Berkeley Plantations was taken over, a month later Bacon Army burned Jamestown to the ground. October Bacon died from dysentery. Berkeley got reinforcements from England. Bacon men changed sides and received amnesty from the governor. Revolt crushed. Left a huge mark and Virginia created a labor source made up of African laves.
Brought indentured servants and slaves together. After this America started making laws to drive a wedge between races. Regulated the mixing between whites and blacks. Barracudas- An enclosure or barrack used for the confinement of slaves before their forced deportation from the African coast. Sometimes months at a time. Virginia Negro Act- 1705 mandated that white servants who were mistreated had the right to sue their masters in county court. Slaves had no right. Steno Rebellion- largest slave uprising in colonial North America that broke out in 1739 near the Steno River, 20 miles southwest of Charleston.
Several factors fueled the rebellion; blacks exceeded whites nearly 2 to 1, working conditions worsened steadily, the Spanish in Florida had been luring slaves from South Carolina knowing that the promise of freedom might destabilize Carolinas profitable slave regime. Privateers- a ship or crew member licensed to harass enemy shipping in wartime. The crews made money if they captured a foreign vessel as a prize Manumissions-1691 A formal emancipation from slavery; the act (by an individual owner or government authority) of granting freedom to an enslaved person or persons.
Covert- French term for he dependent legal status of a woman during marriage. Under English law, the male family head received legal rights; and his wife lost independent status, becoming, in legal terms, a femme covert. Dutch law codes had ensured their legal status. James Cholesterol-1733 Governor of Georgia, was against slavery. Began building a capitol on Savannah. One of the trustees who saw three purposes for an experimental colony- charitable, commercial, and military. Comanche-Indians had been hunter gathers in the high plains of Wyoming. Acquired horses after the Pueblo Revolt. The benefited the most from the Spanish defeat.
Gained greater access to the markets in New Mexico the eventually pressed southeast into the Texas plains. Cajuns- The Louisiana word for French-speaking people Acadia (from Nova Scotia) who were forced to move south in 1755 during the French and Indian War. Many of these refugees eventually settled in French Louisiana, where they have had a lasting impact on the culture. Ohio Company of Virginia- 1747 a group of land speculators formed seeking permission to develop western lands hrs later they got granted 200,000 acres south of the Ohio River if they would construct a fort in the area.
The French had ideas in the same area. Virginia sent in Major George Washington to warn the French to leave this led to history first truly global war. Indulgences- pay for someone to take your place in purgatory. John Textile wrote on a sermon on it and this sermon led Martin Luther to write the Ninety-Five thesis in 1517. A remission of temporal punishment due to sin, 95 Theses- was written by Martin Luther in 1517 and is widely regarded as the initial catalyst for the Protestant Reformation.
The disputation protests against clerical abuses, especially the sale of indulgences. George Whitfield- 27 yr old English Minister, traveled all over the New world, drew in age crowds. Helped the Great Awakening gain momentum in the asses Jamestown, Va- May 1607, 1st colony of London, 2nd colony of Virginia, retain some liberties, franchises of Englishman if you came. Crown colony. During the first winter death from hunger, exposure, and sickness cut the population in half. Established by the Virginia Company of London. Susan Constant, Discovery and Godspeed. James Fort” John Locke- 1623-1704 tabular Rasa-blank state at birth, believes that no one is superior by birth, wrote an essay of Human Understanding in 1690, two treatises of overspent 1690:states must safeguard ‘natural’ rights of life, liberty and property, truth about human beings beliefs, gobo should protect the rights for everyone to enjoy, possibly the 1st modern Sociologist, Captain John Smith- key promoter of overseas development, published a best seller General Histories he came in and became the leader of the Virginia Colony and helped save the colony after its staving the first year. He trained them to farm and work.
Was the first English explorer to map the Chesapeake Bay area and New England. He gave the name New England to the region. Mayflower Compact- becomes the only legal document for Pilgrims BC they landed on the wrong area outside original British Rules area. Was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony. Written by the Separatists, also known as the “Saints” was signed aboard ship on November 1 1, 1620 by most adult men (but not by most crew and adult male servants). The Pilgrims used the Julian Calendar, also known as Old Style dates, which, at that time, was ten days behind the Gregorian Calendar.
Signing the covenant were 41 of the ship’s 101 passengers Puritans- “Purity’ Anglican Church, 2 types; Pilgrims separatists, left England and went to the Netherlands. Congregationalists, moderate, dominate colony wanted more of a Lutheran Calvinist type church, predestination belief, believe that anyone can part grace not Just clergy. “Priesthood of all believers” came to America to escape damnation. Henry VIII- married Catherine of Argon, the youngest surviving daughter of Spain’s royal couple, Ferdinand and Isabella. When she was unable to bare him a male heir, he wanted a divorce.
Being as her parents were good friends with the pope he said no. Henry VIII got control of the English Church from papal hands and had the Parliament approve his divorce and remarriage. The new church followed much of the Catholic Church’s doctrine, however its “Protector and only supreme head” would now be the English Monarch. Had a total of 6 wives. Predestination- John Calvin interpreted biblical predestination to mean that God willed eternal damnation for some people and salvation for others. No free will, everything is predestined by God.
Catholics argued that people had free will to avoid sin by performing sacraments. Middle Passage- was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade. Ships departed Europe for African markets with manufactured goods, which were traded for purchased or kidnapped Africans, who were transported across the Atlantic as slaves; the slaves were then sold or traded for raw materials, which would be transported back to Europe to complete the voyage. It was expensive so it was usually financed by companies or large groups of people.
Slaves were piled in like sardines. Sea Dogs- were English adventurers or pirates at the time of Elizabeth I of England. John Hawkins was the leader of the Sea Dogs and mainly engaged in attacks on Spanish shipping in the Caribbean. Would also engage in slave trade from Africa Spanish Armada 1588- the Spanish went to attack England but England was waiting and obliterated Spain’s ships. Spain was forever weakened by this event. This expedition was the largest engagement of the undeclared Anglo- Spanish War Joint Stock Companies- 1 555 divide cost so charter companies to monopolize trades.
Russian’s Muscles Company, which had a monopoly on trade between Moscow and London. The much more famous, wealthy and powerful English (later British) East India Company was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I n December 31, 1600, with the intention of favoring trade privileges in India Pontiac Rebellion- a war that was launched in 1763 by a loose confederation of elements of Native American tribes primarily from the Great Lakes region, the Illinois Country, and Ohio Country who were dissatisfied with British postwar policies in the Great Lakes region after the British victory in the French and Indian War (1754-1763).
Warriors from numerous tribes Joined the uprising in an effort to drive British soldiers and settlers out of the region. The war is named after the Ottawa leader Pontiac, the most prominent of many native leaders in the conflict. Best-known incident of the war, British officers at Fort Pit attempted to infect the besieging Native Americans with smallpox using blankets that had been exposed to the virus. Pocahontas- daughter of Chief Phaeton married John Roller in hopes of reconciliation between the English and Indians. Leaders intended the wedding diplomatic alliance as a gesture toward peace.
She died three years later in England. It did little to curtail the settler’s bitterness over their lingering dependence on Indian Supplies. Tobacco Martin Luther- 1483-1546 Catholic German Monk who believed priests had to much power in regards to men’s soul. John Teasel’s sermon led him to write the Ninety-Five Theses in 1517. Lutheranism-“Solar Fide” which means by faith alone. His religious reforms spread across Europe, split communities and even sparked armed conflict. Pope excommunicated him. Wrote Ninety-Five Theses and nailed copies on church bulletin boards.
Luther and his followers received the name Protestants. Their movement became known as the Reformation. Huge and even made waves to the Americas. Led to their 1st attempt to plant a colony in the new world. Roger Williams- dissenter. When he arrived in Boston his Separatist leanings angered the Bay Colony authorities who still hoped to reform the Anglican Church rather than to renounce it. Argued that civil authorities had no right to Judge religious matters. Pushed for a unprecedented separation of church and state-to protect the church.
He also said the colony land patent from the king had no validity. He said the settlers had to purchase occupancy rights from the Native Americans. He was banished from Massachusetts so he moved south to Providence, built a refuge. While still subject to arrest he went back to England where he persuaded leaders of England’s rising Puritan Revolution to grant charter to his independent colony of Rhode Island. Early forms of labor in Virginia- Indentured Servants-3-7 years of service to “master” in exchange for housing and transport from England.
Usually the younger ones could work off the contract faster than older ones. Strict regulations and severe penalties for breaking laws. “Redemption’s” were traded and sold like slaves in the new world. Fell out of favor by 1700, but are mentioned in 1789 US Constitution. Not all were voluntary, sometimes they were kidnapped kids, or even convicts to escape Jail time. Slaves- Slavery wasn’t well regulated in America. African slaves made better slaves than Indians. Europeans bought the slaves from Africa.
Africans would go raid villages to kidnap slaves to sale BC the price was really good. Only males. Slaves shared the same immune system as Europeans BC they were so close. Culturally they had to adopt the language and religion of their masters. Essentially lost their own culture which was physically and morally crippling to them. Slaves spirits were broken down so they ended up working better. Slaves cost more than indentured servants but slaves were allowed to reproduce. They were easier to distinguish when around other people BC of their physical attributes.